Dual Skills Approaches to Reading Instruction: Reading-Writing Reading-Listening Reading Speaking

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Transcript of Dual Skills Approaches to Reading Instruction: Reading-Writing Reading-Listening Reading Speaking

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  • Dual Skills Approaches to Reading Instruction: Reading-Writing Reading-Listening Reading Speaking
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  • A Working Paper Presented at the 20 th World Congress on Reading, 26 July 2004, Shangri-la Hotel, Manila Melvin R. Andrade, Ed.D. Sophia Junior College, Japan, and Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan E-mail: m-andrad@jrc.sophia.ac.jp
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  • Intended audience Teachers of EFL/ESL reading skills at the intermediate level. Applicable to middle and high school, and college programs. Teachers of EFL/ESL reading skills at the intermediate level. Applicable to middle and high school, and college programs. Curriculum planners of such reading programs. Curriculum planners of such reading programs.
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  • Purpose Purpose To present a model of how multiple skills can be integrated in the reading class To present a model of how multiple skills can be integrated in the reading class To review examples of how textbooks actually combine skills to teach reading To review examples of how textbooks actually combine skills to teach reading
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  • Contents Overview Difference between a discrete EFL/ESL "reading class" and an EFL/ESL "integrated skills" class Difference between a discrete EFL/ESL "reading class" and an EFL/ESL "integrated skills" class How purpose, level, ability and other variables affect the amount of time devoted to reading, writing, speaking, and listening How purpose, level, ability and other variables affect the amount of time devoted to reading, writing, speaking, and listening Appropriateness of certain skill combinations: reading-writing vs. reading-listening vs. reading- speaking Appropriateness of certain skill combinations: reading-writing vs. reading-listening vs. reading- speaking Examples and analysis reading textbooks for non- native learners from the viewpoint combining skills Examples and analysis reading textbooks for non- native learners from the viewpoint combining skills
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  • Background 1 Classroom reading activities fall into two broad categories, an input phase and an output phase, and these in turn can be further classified into socially interactive and independent activities: Classroom reading activities fall into two broad categories, an input phase and an output phase, and these in turn can be further classified into socially interactive and independent activities: Learners listen to their teacher read a story aloud. They read silently. They respond to comprehension questions orally and in writing. They discuss what they read.
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  • Background 2 Although reading is by definition an encounter with written language, reading instruction necessarily involves multiple skills and modalities (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). While numerous possibilities exist for combining the four basic language skills in a reading class, the focus always remains on developing independent readers who can get meaning from the printed page. Although reading is by definition an encounter with written language, reading instruction necessarily involves multiple skills and modalities (listening, speaking, reading, and writing). While numerous possibilities exist for combining the four basic language skills in a reading class, the focus always remains on developing independent readers who can get meaning from the printed page.
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  • Pedagogical issues The interdependence of skills in the reading class raises a number of questions, both practical and theoretical, of interest to classroom teachers and researchers. In reading classes where the goal is to develop skillful independent readers, some questions needing to be considered are the following: The interdependence of skills in the reading class raises a number of questions, both practical and theoretical, of interest to classroom teachers and researchers. In reading classes where the goal is to develop skillful independent readers, some questions needing to be considered are the following:
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  • . What is the difference between an EFL/ESL reading class and an EFL/ESL "integrated skills" class?
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  • 2. In a "reading class," how do purpose, level, ability and other variables affect the amount of time devoted to reading, writing, speaking, and listening?
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  • 3. Are certain combinations of skills more appropriate than others: reading-writing vs. reading-listening vs. reading- speaking?
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  • The present ongoing study considers these and other questions primarily within the context of second- and foreign-language reading classes at the intermediate level, although the findings to a large extent can apply to first-language classes as well.
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  • Model Building To answer the questions above, a two-part model was constructed. The first part, Fig. 1, presents an analysis of course formats for teaching English skills (EFL/ESL). The second part, Fig. 2, presents an analysis of language input-output in dual-skill combination courses, which is the principal focus of this study.
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  • Figure 1: Course Formats for Teaching EFL/ESL Skills 1-1 Integrated Skills Course All skills are taught in the same course: Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, Pronunciation, etc. Perhaps best for lower- and middle- ability learners, but also possible with upper-ability learners.
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  • Figure 1: Course Formats for Teaching EFL/ESL Skills 1-2 Discrete General Skills Courses Each course emphasizes one skill area (although other skills are included to some extent): Pronunciation Pronunciation Listening Listening Speaking Speaking Reading Reading Writing Writing Perhaps best for (1) middle- and higher-ability learners, and (2) English majors who need in-depth practice in all skills. Perhaps best for (1) middle- and higher-ability learners, and (2) English majors who need in-depth practice in all skills. Courses may include both intensive learning for mastery and extensive learning for fluency. Courses may include both intensive learning for mastery and extensive learning for fluency. Courses may be narrow (one topic area) or broad (covering many topics) in scope. Courses may be narrow (one topic area) or broad (covering many topics) in scope.
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  • Figure 1: Course Formats for Teaching EFL/ESL Skills 1-3 Discrete Specific Skills Courses Each course emphasizes one particular skill in a skill area. Examples: Letter writing Letter writing Reading newspapers Reading newspapers Rapid Reading Rapid Reading English for Travelers English for Travelers Vocabulary Development Vocabulary Development Perhaps best as elective courses for middle- and higher- ability learners, but can be taught at multiple levels.
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  • Figure 1: Course Formats for Teaching EFL/ESL Skills 1-4 Two-Skill Courses Each course emphasizes two particular skills combined either as receptive-receptive, productive-productive, or receptive-productive depending on the purpose and level of the course: Listening & Speaking Listening & Speaking Listening & Reading Listening & Reading Listening & Writing Listening & Writing Reading & Speaking Reading & Speaking Reading & Writing Reading & Writing Writing & Speaking Writing & Speaking Application...
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  • ... These combinations may be most suitable for teaching certain specialized skills for middle- and upper-ability learners. Perhaps they are not suitable for lower-ability learners. Examples: Listening & Speaking Conversational skills Listening & Reading Drama, poetry Listening & Writing Note-taking for lectures Reading & Speaking Debate Reading & Writing Research reports, letters Writing & Speaking Public speaking
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  • Figure 1: Course Formats for Teaching EFL/ESL Skills 1-5 English Skills Through Content Learning A variant of the integrated skills course focusing on one subject area and normally taught entirely in English. The emphasis is on the use and learning of English rather than on mastery A variant of the integrated skills course focusing on one subject area and normally taught entirely in English. The emphasis is on the use and learning of English rather than on mastery of the subject. Most suitable for middle and upper ability learners. Courses are counted as English courses (practical seminars) not subject matter courses (history, science, etc.) Most suitable for middle and upper ability learners. Courses are counted as English courses (practical seminars) not subject matter courses (history, science, etc.)
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  • Figure 2. Analysis of Language Input-Output in Dual-skill Combination Courses Refer to handout (OHP).
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  • Application of the Model Based on this model, the next phase of the study involves the content analysis of actual textbooks to answer the following four questions:
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  • 1. What kinds of listening, writing, and speaking activities are included as part of the reading lesson? 2. Which of these supporting skills are emphasized, and how closely are they related to the text?
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  • 3. What theoretical or pedagogical position do they reflect? 4. How do reading textbooks intended for an international audience differ from those intended for a specific linguistic-cultural group (in this case, Japanese learners of English)?
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