Dual credit psychology notes chapter 6 - brain and body

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Transcript of Dual credit psychology notes chapter 6 - brain and body

  • 1. Unit 3 Workings of Mind and Body
    Chapter 6 Body and Behavior
    Chapter 7 Altered States of Consciousness
    Chapter 8 Sensation and Perception

2. Interesting Stats on Brain
100 billion cells, each with thousands of connections (up to 100,000).
1 cubic inch=10,000 miles of fibers, 100 million cells
1300 -1400 grams
350 400 grams
-adult versus newborn
brain
3. The Nervous System
4. Key Concepts
Brain
Sensory
Neuron
Motor
Neuron
Skin receptors
Interneuron
Muscle
Nervous systems function in sensory input, integration, and motor output.
The nervous system is composed of neurons and supporting cells.
Membrane potentials arise from differences in ion concentrations between a cells contents and the extracellular fluid.
An action potential is an all-or-none change in the membrane potential.
5. Key Concepts
Action potentials travel along an axon because they are self-propagating.
Chemical or electrical communication between cells occurs at synapses.
One neurotransmitter can produce different effects on different types of cells.
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Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Key Concepts
The symmetry of the nervous system is correlated with body symmetry.
Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized.
The vertebrate peripheral nervous system has several components differing in organization and function.
7. Key Concepts
The brainstem conducts data and controls automatic activities essential for survival.
The cerebellum controls movement and balance.
The thalamus and hypothalamus are prominent integrating centers of the forebrain.
The cerebrum contains the most sophisticated integrating centers.
8. Functions of Nervous Systems
9. Cells of the Nervous System
Neurons

  • Functional unit of the NS

10. Transmit signals from one location to another 11. Structure 12. Large cell body 13. Processes that conduct signals 14. Dendrites: tips neuron 15. Axons: neuron tipsEnclosed by myelin sheath
End in synaptic terminals that release neurotransmitters
16. The Dendrite Song!
Axons send outNeurotransmittersTo the dendrites all aroundAcross the synapseJumps the impulseNew ideas can now abound.
StimulationIs what the brain needsTo make dendrites stretch and grow. New connectionsMake us smarterIn what we think and what we know.
Use your dendrites,Use your dendrites,To connect throughout your brainTake in info, analyze it,Grow some new onesUnrestrained.
(sung to the tune of "Clementine)
Use your dendrites,Use your dendrites,To connect throughout your brain.Take in info, analyze it,Grow some new onesUnrestrained.
17. How are neurons organized? (158)
Three types of neurons
Afferent (Sensory) neurons
Interneurons (Central Nervous System)
Efferent (Motor) neurons

  • Neural circuits form from any combination of two or more of these

18. Convergent: (many to one) 19. Divergent: (one to many) 20. Reverberating: (circular) 21. Simplest: Sensory and motor neurons reflex arc