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  • 1.Disaster ljkb hf]lvdRisk Go"gLs/0f ReductionToolkitAN INFORMATION PACK FOR;Gbe{ ;fdfu|Lg]kfnsf ;+ljwfg ;ef;bx?sf CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLYnflu hfgsf/Ld"ns MEMBERS OF NEPAL;Gbe{ ;fdfu|LWorking Together for a Risk Resilient Nepal This DRR Tool Kit for Constituent Assembly members isk|sf]k hf]lvd Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL ;Gbe{ ;fdfu|Lproduced jointly by the following organizations, o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'Doflg6]l/og P8 l8kf6{d]G6sf] with funding support of cfly{s ;xof]udf l8k]sf] kfrf}+sf ;fem]bf/ ;+:yfx?European Commission Humanitarian Aid department-PS;gP8 ;xnufgL c;P8, s]o/ g]kfn, (through DIPECHO V partners ActionAid with AusAID xofG8LSofk OG6/g]zgn, dl;{sf]/, co-finance, Care Nepal, Handicap International, k|fS6Lsn PS;g / o'Pgl8lklal;lkcf/_Mercy Corps, Practical Action andcS;kmfd hLaL, ;+oQm /fi6 ;+3Lo ljsf; sfo{qmd 'UNDP BCPR South and South West Asia), Oxfam GB,/ cGt/f{li6o u};; ;+3, g]kfnn]United Nations Development Program Nepal and ;+o'Qm ?kdf ;+ljwfg ;ef ;b:ox?sf] Association of International NGOs, Nepal. lglDt tof/ ul/Psf] xf] . Design, layout & production by PowerComm, 5552987

2. European Commission Humanitarian Aid o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'd]lg6]l/og P8 department l8kf6{d]G6 The European Commissions Humanitarian Aid o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'd]lg6]l/og P8 l8kf6{d]G6 department is under the direct responsibility of sldzg/ n'O{; dfO{s]nsf] k|ToIf pQ/bfloTjdf Commissioner Louis Michel. Since 1992, the /x]sf] 5 . ;g !((@ b]lv pQm sldzgn] o'/f]k Commission has funded relief to millions of victimseGbf aflx/sf b]zxdf x'g] k|fs[lts tyf dfgjhGo of natural and man-made disasters outside theljkbxaf6 kLl8t nfvf}+ dflg;xnfO{ dfgjLo European Union.;xfotf k|bfg ub}{ cfPsf] 5 .Aid is channelled impartially to the affectedo'/f]lkog sldzgn] k|efljt hgtfnfO{ pgLxsf] populations, regardless of their race, ethnic group, j0f{, hftLo ;d"x, wd{, ln, pd]/, /fli6otf jf religion, gender, age, nationality or political affiliation. /fhgLlts cfj4tf h]h:tf] ePklg lgikIf In the area of humanitarian aid, the Commissiontl/sfn] ;xof]u pknAw u/fpFb5 . dfgjLo works with 200 operational partners, including ;xfotfsf If]qdf sldzgn] ;+o'Qm /fi6 ;+3sf specialised United Nation agencies, the Redljlzli6s[t lgsfo, /]8qm; tyf /]8 lqm;]G6 Cross/Crescent movement and non-governmental cfGbf]ng / u};;nufotsf b'O{;oeGbf a9L ;+:yf organisations (NGOs). The European Commissionjf ;fem]bf/x;Fu sfo{ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] 5 . o'/f]lkog is one of the biggest sources of humanitarian aid in sldzg dfgjLo ;xfotfsf If]qdf ljZjs} ;a}eGbf the world. In 2007, it provided over 768 million Euros 7"nf] ;|f]tdWo]sf] Ps xf] . ;g @))& df o;n] dfgjLo for humanitarian projects. This does not include the ;xfotfsf nflu &^* ldlnog o'/f] /sd pknAw aid given separately by the EUs 25 Member States. u/fPsf] lyof] . o;df o'/f]lkog o'lgogsf @% j6f ;b:o Support went to projects in (number) countries./fi6n] cnUu} k|bfg ug]{ ;xof]u /sd ;dfj]z The funds are spent on goods and services such ul/Psf] 5}g . pknAw u/fPsf] /sd vfBfGg, sk8f, as food, clothing, shelter, medical provisions, watercfjf;, cf}iflw, kfgL cfk"lt{, ;/;kmfO{, cfkTsfnLg supplies, sanitation, emergency repairs and mine-dd{t;Def/ / af?bL ;'? x6fpg] h:tf sfo{xdf clearing.vr{ x'G5 . The Commission also funds disaster preparednesssldzgn] k|fs[lts ljkbsf] pRr ;Defjgf ePsf and mitigation projects in regions prone to naturalIf]qxdf ljkb k"j{tof/L / Iflt Go"gLs/0f;DaGwL catastrophes. Under department of Disaster cfof]hgfxdf klg nufgL ub{5 . k|sf]k Preparedness (DIPECHO), the European k"j{tof/L;DaGwL ljefu -l8k]sf]_ dftxtdf /x]sf] Commissions Humanitarian Aid department has o'/f]lkog sldzg xo'd]lg6]l/og P8 l8kf6{d]G6n] g]kfn been supporting a number of disaster preparednessnufot blIf0f Plzof If]qdf ljkb k"j{tof/L;DaGwL initiatives in South Asia, including Nepal.w]/} sfo{x ;~rfng ub}{ cfO/]sf] 5 . For more information, please visit official website of European Commission at www.ec.europa.eu 3. Disaster Situationin Nepal Disaster Disaster Situation in Nepal RiskReduction Toolkit30 th Global Rank in Water InducedDisasters Risk11 thGlobal Rank in Earthquake RiskPhoto: ECO Nepal Of 198 countries in the 346recent diarrheaworld, Nepal is ranked 11thin terms of earthquake Living under constant threat of disasters,affected deathrisk and 30th in terms ofwater-induced disaster riskwe Nepalese people62,016(UN/BCPR, 2004) have to ensure a riskrecent diarrhea Nepal is highly vulnerable resilient country toto a variety of disastersaffected peoplelikeflood,landslide,ensure our right toearthquake, re,epidemic,and climate change lead a secure life...impact, etc.1,000death due to Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF), avalenches, industrial andtransport accident, environmental pollution, pesticides relateddisasters,accidents etc. are contributing to disaster vulnerability in Nepal.every year A recent report of Department of Epidemelogy and Disease1,20,80,00,000 Control, Nepal shows that 346 people died and 62,016 peoplewere directly by diarrheal epidemic that spread over 20 districtsNPR, economic of far and mid-western Nepal since 2008.loss per year 4. Likewise,globalepidemicslikeBirdFlu(AvianInfluenza)and Swine Flu (H1N1) are already affecting the localpopulation. Ministry of Home Affairs (MoHA) report indicates thatevery year, more than 1,000 people die due to disasters.According to DisInventar Database, on an average over twopersons die everyday because of disasters, 200 everyday areaffected. Photo: Co Action Nepal From 1971 to 2007, over 1,33,000 people were affectedevery year by disasters... over 9,350 houses were destroyedevery year (MoHA) MoHA report shows that economic loss due to disasters isNPR 1.2 billion a year. German Watch Index, 2006 states that Nepal is ranked Photo: ISET-N6th in terms of vulnerability due climate change inducedhazards. Nepals average temperature is increasing rapidly comparedto global average in global warming. If the current trendof rising temperature continues, three-fourth of Nepals3,000+ glacial lakes will dwindle by 2030 due to prematuremeltdown. ICIMOD assessment illustrates that of the 2323 glacial lakesof Nepal, 20 are potentially dangerous and can result in According to various Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF). studies, among the EntireNepalsonhighseismicactivezoneindicating major 200 cities ofimpending high intensity earthquake anytime. According tovarious studies, among the major 200 cities of the world, the world, Kathmandu Kathmandu valley is extremely vulnerable to earthquake and valley is extremelycan result in mass scale destruction of lives and property.vulnerable to The joint study report of MoHA and JICA (JapanInternational Coorporation Agency), 2002 estimates that earthquake and canif an earthquake of intensity equivalent to 8.4 Richter scale result in mass scale strikes Kathmandu valley (compared to 1934 earthquake),40,000 people may lose life; destruction of lives 95,000 people are likely to be injured and over 60 percent and property.of the buildings will collapse. The frequency, intensity and impact of disasters is on therise... 5. Disaster Management Disaster RiskReduction Toolkit Legislation: Legislation: Need for Revision Disaster Management Need for Revisional Nep to: ECO Pho Natural Calamity (Relief) Act of 1982,though amended twice is has not served its purpose in ensuring rights of disaster affected and disaster vulnerable people. In its currentform, it is inadequate to address comprehensive risk reduction framework. A revision to the existing legal provisions is imperative now Nepal is highly vulnerable to disaster risks. Previous experiences have given ampleThe country lags in its capacity to cope with evidence that preparedness measuresdisasters and major disaster events can wreck can reduce disaster losses drastically. (Inhavoc to the future of Nepal. There is a need toBangladesh, the cycle of 1970 killedstrengthen the policy and legislation on disaster 500,000 people while only 4,000 life management,losses were reported due to 2009 cyclone. Experiences haveemphasizingReason is the comprehensive cyclone proved that disasteron holistic risk preparedness program in Bangladesh preparedness can reduce reduction measures since early 90s). 90% of human losses.through clear One rupee invested in emphasis on The Natural Calamity (Relief) Act of 1982, preparedness can save various stages amended twice in 1989 and 1992 is more seven rupees at times ofof disaster risk response oriented. The existing legislation has mass casualties.management cycle.been found to be inadequate to address rights 6. of disaster affected or disaster vulnerable The proposed comprehensive risk reduction people. Three is a need for immediateframework should include, among other revision of the existing legal provisions to provisions: ensure holistic risk management policies and systems giving adequate emphasis Transition from a relief centric to a risk on all stages of disaster risk managementreduction centric approach cycle from preparedness to sustainable Elimination of knowledge gap on disaster risk development. reduction in the societyEmphasis on gender and social inclusion The state must ensure that people with including people with disabilities disabilities as well as other differentially Efcient and effective coordination through vulnerable people are consulted and included participation at all stages of disaster risk in all aspects of society, ensuring equalreduction process opportunities in private and public life.Integrating risk reduction approach into Inclusion of differentially vulnerable peopledevelopment policies and actions must be a component of any decisionEstablishment of an effective organizational and action on disaster risk management atstructure to facilitate quick and efcient decision various levels.makingIntegrating disaster risk reduction plans at various Disaster Impact Assessment should be levels, from local to national levels mandatory during development and Establishmen