Drama and theater

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Transcript of Drama and theater

  • 1. Theater and Drama

2. Theater It is executed according to its elements in dance, drama in mask, music and sounds, and costumes and props. Drama It is a prose or poetical composition presenting a story of human life through the performance of actors and actresses. It is an experience shared between the participants on stage and the people in the auditorium. 3. Production is considered successful when a play isstaged artistically, when acting is well-emoted, andwhen the audience is captivated by all these.Steps in Play Production: Choosing the Script Director Some of the directors most important duties: Choosing the cast members Teaching stage business Scheduling rehearsals Discussing characterization Planning out and determining with the help of artist Drawing up committees to compose the stage crew 4. Casting > it is the first things that directors do by means of tryouts or audition Roles- a persons appearance, size, voice, and dictionare the factors to be considered Casts- the group of people who play the rolesRehearsals > the first rehearsal is a reading of the whole play done by the director or by the cast reading their own parts 5. Stage business > in a play, actors and actresses movearound, talk, sit, laugh, make phone calls. Thesethings that the players do on stage are calledbusiness Cross- the walking on stage Right cross Left cross Blocking Upstage Downstage 6. Characterization > the actors may be asked to interpret their lines after discussions have been held over the attitudes, feelings, reactions, or behavior of the persons in the play which they are impersonating Scenery > the background or backdrop for the whole play Properties or props > it include the commonly used items like a sofa, chairs, tables, baskets, and the like, borrowed or made 7. Costumes > the artistic director contact a couturier or costumer to design the costumes and make them unless the players have their own particular tailor Curtain call > prolonged applause which a performer acknowledges by appearing on the stage after the end of a play or scene 8. MEN BEHIND THE SCENES Stage manager job is to oversee everything Music and sound effects man Prompters Prop and scenery committee Lights committee Wardrobe mistress 9. Dress rehearsals > is needed for at least two times The performance > all participants should remain backstage and not to mingle with the audience unless specified. 10. Theater andHistory 11. The Major Periods of Ancient Western Theatre (BCE = BC; CE = AD)*The Major Periods of Ancient WesternAncient Greece (800-200 BCE)Pre-Classical Age (to 500 BCE)Classical Age (500-400 BCE)Post-Classical/Hellenistic Age (400-200 BCE) 12. Ancient Rome (753 BCE -476 CE) 1.Early Roman Native Theatre (to 240 BCE) 2.Age of Greek-Based Drama (240-100 BCE) 3.Popular Entertainment (100 BCE -476 CE) Theatre (BCE = BC; CE = AD) 13. 3000-800 BCE: Egyptian Civilization 800 BCE: Pre-Classical Greek Civilization 800-700 BCE: Homer and Epic Poetry (Iliad, Odyssey) 700-550 BCE: Lyric Poetry (Sappho) 550-529 BCE: The Tyrant Pisistratus rules Athens 534 BCE: The Inauguration of the City Dionysia 529-512 BCE: Pisistratusson Hippiasrules Athens 512-508 BCE: Exile of Hippiasand Political Chaos inAthens 508 BCE: Birth of Athenian Democracy 14. 500-479 BCE: Early Classical Age 490; 481-479 BCE: The Persian Wars 486BCE: Comedy premieres at the Dionysia 479-431 BCE: The Pentakontaetia 472 BCE: Aeschylus produces The Persians 460-429 BCE: Pericles leads Athens ca. 463-405 BCE: Sophoclescareer as a playwright 431-404 BCE: The Peloponnesian War 455-406 BCE: Euripidescareer as a playwright 427-386 BCE: Aristophanes writes Old Comedy 15. 404-338 BCE: Greek Civil War 371 BCE: Thebes defeats Sparta at Leuctra 360-336 BCE: Philip II rules Macedonia 385-325 BCE: Middle Comedy 338-323 BCE: Alexander the Great 338 BCE: Philip defeats Greek at Chaeronea 336-323 BCE: Alexander conquers much of the ancientworld 322-200s BCE: The Hellenistic Age 423-391 BCE: Menander writes New Comedy 16. 753-510 BCE: Early Roman Kingdom 600-510 BCE: Etruscans rule Rome (gladiators) 510 BCE: Founding of the Roman Republic 510-264 BCE: Romans conquer Italy 400s and 300s BCE: Early Italian Drama AtellanFarce, FescennineVerse, phlyaxplays,hilarotragodiae 264-241 BCE: The First Punic War (Carthage) 241 BCE: LiviusAndronicus translates The OdysseyinLatin 17. 241-202 BCE: Early Roman Greek-Based Drama 218-202 BCE: The Second Punic War (Hannibal) 202-100 BCE: The Romans conquer Greece 205-186 BCE: Plautus writes Roman Comedy(palliatae) 166-160 BCE: Terence writes Roman Comedy 100s BCE: Pacuviusand Acciuswrite Roman tragedy 133-123 BCE: The Gracchilead a revolt against theincreasingly corrupt Senate 18. 100-44 BCE: The Rise of Generals Marius, Sulla, Pompey and Caesar 44-31 BCE: Civil War between Octavian (laterAugustus) and Mark Antony 31 BCE: Octavian defeats Antonyat the Battle ofActium 31 BCE -476 CE: The Roman Empire ca. 50-65 CE: Senecawrites only extant Romantragedy Gladiators, chariot races, blood sports, mime,pantomime, ... 19. Webster: "the branch of knowledge that dealssystematically with the past" Henry Ford: "more or less bunk" anonymous student: "one damn thing after another" Simon Schauma: "the study of the past in all itssplendid messiness" 20. Historiography the study of historical methodshistoria the ancient Greek word for questioning i.e. research (into the past) a term coined by Herodotus part of the Ionian Revolution which embraced a search for the elementswhichunderlay all being 21. historians are like scientists dig for new data in mounds or libraries but cannot repeat an experiment in that regard, historians are more like detectives thanscientists they look for evidence 22. theatre S. Johnson: an echo of the publics voice Shakespeare: a mirror Giraudoux: a trial Farquhar: a banquet theatron in ancient Greek literally, an instrument for viewing i.e. the seats not the stage or orchestra or parodoi! 23. theatre John Cage: theatre takes place all the time whereverone goes Bernard Beckerman: theatre happens whenever oneof more human beings, isolated in time and/or space,present themselves to another or others Patti Gillespie: performances by living actors thattake place in the presence of living audiences 24. language: versus movement in dance, song in opera impersonation: versus rules in a game, teaching in aclassroom audience: or, better, viewers n.b. there is a theatre for the deaf, but no theatre forthe blind 25. The Hellenistic Age general chaos and confusion after Spartas victory in thePeloponnesian War led to a civil war of sorts inside Greece the rise of Thebes the Battle of Leuctra(371 BCE): the graveyard of theSpartthe rise of Macedon especially, Philip II defeated the combined forces of the southern Greeks atChaeronea(338 BCE) but Philip was assassinated (336 BCE) 26. and Alexanderassumed Philips throne,saddled up and rode eastAlexanders conquests opened up the East toGreek cultural colonizationthe Greek language began to evolve into avernacular dialect called koinethe Greeks were, in general, richer than everbeforebut depressedand disoriented (get it?)an aristocracy 27. rise of many new philosophies Stoicism: be unemotional and trust that theuniverse has a plan Epicureanism: retreat behind garden wallsand avoid pain 28. Art in theHellenistic Ageall this led to drasticchanges in arte.g. statuary focuseson violence/paintechnically brilliant but hollow 29. tragedy faltered, collapsed and died though revivals of oldtragedies from theClassical Age still had a huge following comedy survived by inventing the sit-com also, mimethrived but did not peak yet! still too bawdy and low-brow for most viewers drama would not sink as low as mimeatleast, 30. measures e.g. fewer choruses (or new odes) also, the end of the parabasis and the end of thephallus also, less direct assault on those in power instead, comedies ridiculed figures in myth 31. no play extant from 388 to 316 BCE this period is called Middle Comedy but we can judge from the outcome what musthave happened especially, the development of stock charactertypes e.g. braggart soldier, greedy prostitute, younglover, stingy old man, etc. 32. the father of New Comedy later comic poets used his melodramatic style,particularly in crafting complex plots but no choruses (i.e. written by dramatists) only four choral interludes(> five acts) Aristotle called these songsembolima(throw-ins) but were they unrelated to the plot? 33. greatest author of Middle Comedy was Alexisof Thurii no play of his survives entire but many fragments and the Greek original of PlautusPoenulus? invented the character of the parasite parasitos(priests assistant) 34. by late 300s BCE, New Comedyappears many playwrights from outside Greece based on common domestic concerns e.g. family, wealth, being a good neighbor but built around extraordinary coincidences,like Euripidesrescue plays e.g. recovery of long-lost children 35. New Comedy was seen to reflect life in the dayrealistically thus, it also shaped life in Hellenistic Greece e.g. offered a more optimistic and hopefulview of life than that of Stoics/Epicureans but still another garden wallfor Greeksdesperate to flee from the world at large 36. three great exponents of New Comedy cf. the triad of classical tragedians Philemon(ca. 368-267 BCE) won most often at the Dionysia much reflection on philosophy Diphilus(ca. 360-290 BCE) from Sinope(on the shore of the Black Sea) famous for farce and physical comedy 37. but the star of New ComedywasMenander(ca. 344-291 BCE) however, only considered best after hislifetime, cf. Euripides his plays, however, were not carried downthrough a manuscript tradition his Greek is later (not classical) so his dramawas not used in training medieval schoolboys 38. yet much of his work has been found among thepapyri unearthed in Egypt very popular reading even long after his death one complete play (Dyscolus, The Grouch)and many sizeable fragments more than half of Samia, Epitrepontes, Aspis less than half of Sicyonius, Misoumenos,Perikeiromene 39. Post-Classical Theatre 40. evolution toward the inclusion of drama in morefestivals festivals also became panhellenic the general collapse of civic pride in Greece led tofewer choregoi which, in turn, forced the creation of theagonothetes(dramatic-contest official) 41. the rise of mega-stars like Polus very popular around the known world! also, the formation of The Artists of Dionysus, aunion overseeing the interests of theatreprofessionals especially those who went on tour the usefulness of the three-actor rule andembolimato 42. new technical devices bronteion: thunder keraunoskopeion: lightning Charonssteps: dead rising from tombs many different types of theatres some are larger than the Theatre of Dionysus(Ephesus) others are smaller (Delphi) 43. a low-brow form of entertainmentnot popular during the Classical Age, eventhough it is attested that far backnor even during the Post-Classical Agerose to prominence in the Roman period 44. highly variable in form and tonemostly raucous, indecorous, full of slapstickbut later mime could be philosophicaland may not even have been performedonly one principal performer (archimime)who played all the speaking parts!mime was what the early Christian fathers despisedand protested against so much 45. we owe a great debt to the Romans in terms of culture,language, politics, DNAand also theatre, but only in certain waysGreek terms: theatre, drama, tragedy, comedy, critic, theory,program, orchestrationbut the Romans were, on the whole, not innovators intheatre or dramathey were mostly transmitters of Greek cultureRoman drama was largely dependent on its inimitable Greekforebearto the Romans, theatre was a diversion and form of leisure,cf. neg-otium(no business)not an art to be taken seriously per se 46. the works of only three Roman playwrights havebeen preserved wholePlautus(fl. 208-186 BCE): 19 comedies based onGreek originals by a variety of New Comedydramatists (Middle Comedy?)Terence(fl. 166-160 BCE): 6 comedies, all fromMenander and Apollodorusof CarystusSeneca(4 BCE-65 CE): 8 tragedies based on Greektragedy, 1 fabulapraetexta 47. Native Italian drama Native Italian drama (pre-240 BCE) Fescennineverses, phlyaces, AtellanfarceLiterary Drama Literary Drama (240-100 BCE) Plautus and Terence, Republican tragediansPopular Entertainment Popular Entertainment(100 BCE-476CE) circuses, spectacles, mime (Seneca) 48. there is a major discrepancy between the textualand material evidencethe majority of Roman drama comes from the lateRepublic (late 200s/early 100s BCE)Senecas tragedies are later but it is questionablewhether they were designed for performanceall existing Roman theatresand depictions ofthem!date to after the 100s BCE 49. the earliest attested forms of Romanentertainment come from the Etruscans, e.g.gladiatorial combatEtruscan ister> Latin histrio histrio (cf.histrionics)Etruscan phersu> Latin persona persona(cf. person, personality) 50. crude clowns improvising alternating versescf. early Greek komosis this a historyconcoctedin the absence of real data? hilarotragodiahilarotragodia (or phlyaces/phlyaxplays)no scripts preservedand only one authors name and play titles arecited: Rhinthon Rhinthon of Syracuse ofSyracuse 51. no permanent (stone/concrete) theatre inthe city of Rome until 55 BCEthe Theatre of Pompeybefore that, all theatres were temporaryi.e. made of wood, but not necessarily cheap!these are now impossible to reconstructall the same, theatres existed throughout therest of the Roman world 52. all extant theatres date to the firstcentury BCE and laterwhen the Romans began to useconcretethus, they could be situated downtown