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  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    ACI AIRSIDE SAFETY HANDBOOK(Third edition 2005)

    FOREWORDWords from ACI..


    This handbook has been produced to provide airside manaers !ith a comprehensive

    set of uide"ines to enhance safet# and prevent incidents. $ateria" has been provided

    from ma%or airports participatin in ACI Wor"d &perationa" 'afet# 'ubcommittee and

    has been summarised to produce a concise document. The aim has been to produce a

    current best practice uidance document !ithout bein over"# detai"ed * furtherdetai"s are avai"ab"e from the usefu" documents and !ebsites "isted in 'ections 5 and



    This handbook is a uide to airside safet#. It is !ritten for airside manaers and bui"ds

    on previous !ork b# ACI * name"# the Apron 'afet# ,andbook. The remit of this

    handbook has been !idened to inc"ude a"" topics re"atin to the safe operation of

    airside areas.

    Aviation throuhout the !or"d continues to ro!- both in terms of the number of

    f"ihts and a"so in terms of aircraft sie. Airfie"ds become busier. The re/uirement is

    to faci"itate this ro!th in a safe environment for passeners- staff and aircraft.

    arious bodies have produced both reu"ations and uidance coverin a number of

    aspects of airside safet#- both nationa""# and internationa""#- inc"udin from !ithin the

    industr#. This handbook is intended to comp"ement such materia" b# offerin

    uidance in areas perhaps not covered in sufficient detai". It updates and brins

    toether the best e"ements of manain airside safet# from current e1perience of those

    invo"ved in this important task from airports around the !or"d. The aim has been to

    keep the contents brief and re"evant.

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    $. A%"&%'e Safety

    . >rotection of naviation aids

    .2 4un!a# incursions

    . 4un!a# friction measurement (maintenance and testin)

    .6 Aerodrome safeuardin * prevention and identification of obstac"es 8cranes

    .5 Wi"d"ife haards

    .+ Airside 'afet# Committee

    .9 Airside 'afet# >romotion

    .< 'takeho"ders 8 Interface !ith ATC- !ith operators- !ith >ro%ect Teams

    .= nine run8ups

    .0 'pecia" f"ihts

    . Aircraft recover#

    (. Anne)e&

    Anne1 A * Airfie"d &perations Competenc# 4ecord * Aircraft $arsha""in

    Anne1 * Airfie"d Works >ermit

    Anne1 C * Works 'ite Check"ist

    Anne1 : * Airbride Check"ist

    Anne1 * Airbride &peration 'afet# Audit Check ;orm

    Anne1 ; * Aircraft Turnround 'afet# Audit Check ;orm

    Anne1 B * Authorisation >ermit for Cranes

    *. U&ef+, D#-+ment&

    . U&ef+, We/&%te&

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    1.1 Safety Management Sy&tem& 0 !#,%-y !e"nne, !"#-e&&e& "e!#"t%ng

    2 "e-#"'&

    1.1.1 3#,%-y

    An airport shou"d have a safet# po"ic# or safet# ob%ective forma""# adopted.

    A safet# po"ic# shou"d out"ine !ho does !hat- !hen and ho! the# do it. It

    shou"d set out ho! the compan# dea"s !ith hea"th and safet# at !ork and the

    oranisation and arranements #ou have for puttin that po"ic# into practice.

    The po"ic# shou"d sho! that arranements are in p"ace to assess and suitab"#

    contro" the haards associated !ith #our business. A enera" po"ic# shou"d

    inc"ude arranements toD

    >rotect emp"o#ees

    Assess a"" risks to hea"th and safet# caused b# the business

    >rovide ade/uate contro"s for an#one affected (inc"udin customers-

    thirds parties etc) !hether safet# or hea"th re"ated.

    Consu"tation processes !ith emp"o#ees

    The provision and maintenance of e/uipment

    The provision of suitab"e instruction- trainin and other information

    $inimise accidents and incidents

    Arranement to revie! this po"ic# at suitab"e interva"s

    The po"ic# shou"d be sined b# the Chief 1ecutive or Chairman.

    4esponsibi"ities for "ine manaers and emp"o#ees shou"d be areed.

    1.1. 3e"nne,

    >ersonne" shou"d be ade/uate"# trained in a"" tasks the# can reasonab"# be

    e1pected to carr# out and shou"d remain proficient at these tasks. 'taff shou"d

    demonstrate their continuin abi"it# to carr# out the tasks re/uired of them and

    this shou"d be recorded (see section .6 * Competencies and Trainin).

    1.1.$ 3"#-e&&e&

    >rocesses shou"d be in p"ace to support the oranisationEs po"ic# or ob%ective.

    >rocesses need to be consistent"# fo""o!ed and the creation of standards and

    procedures he"p to achieve this. >rocesses- standards and procedures need to

    be c"ear"# o!ned b# a responsib"e person empo!ered to ensure the# arefo""o!ed. These !i"" be man# and varied in nature coverin for e1amp"e

    detai"ed activities of the airport dut# teams throuh to the revie!in of overa""

    apron safet# trends. >rocesses shou"d be documented and form the basis of

    staff trainin for ne! recruits. These b# their ver# nature !i"" need revie!in

    and updatin as thins chane on the airfie"d. The Aerodrome $anua" is a ke#

    part of the documentation and communication of certain processes to other

    airfie"d users.

    1.1.( Re!#"t%ng

    'afet# reportin has 2 purposes * one is to check proress aainst achievin

    tarets- monitorin incident rates or measurin if a chane has resu"ted inimproved safet# and the second is to monitor that the re/uired processes or

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    activities have been comp"eted * in other !ords to demonstrate safet#

    assurance. 4eportin of both these aspects are usefu" in an '$' * one

    measures the input and one measures the output or resu"ts. &noin

    records shou"d be kept.

    1.1.* Re-#"'&4ecords shou"d be kept of a"" aspects of safet# * processes to fo""o!- processes

    comp"eted a"on !ith dates- personne" and their trainin records.

    1.1. W4at '#e& t4e &+--e&&f+, %nt"#'+-t%#n #f an SMS "e&+,t %n 5

    It resu"ts in the suitab"e and ade/uate manaement and de"iver# of safet# to

    both aircraft and peop"e in a shared !orkp"ace environment.

    An '$' ensures "ea" comp"iance- retains operatin "icence- improves

    business performance and important"# is proactive not reactive.

    There are 6 e"ements to this 8 >"an- :o- Check- 4evie!.

    3,an f#" A%"f%e,' Safety 0 Gett%ng #"gan%&e'

    7nderstand e1istin "eis"ative and compan# re/uirements

    Identif# safet# ob%ectives

    stab"ish continenc# p"ans and business recover# p"ans

    Confirm airfie"d procedures are documented and up to date for a"" activities

    Check a"" risk assessments are comp"ete

    D#%ng A%"f%e,' SafetyInitia" trainin

    Competencies and refresher trainin processes in p"ace

    Infrastructure and e/uipment checks bein carried out

    'taff meetins and consu"tation processes ta"k about safet#

    4eportin of a"" incidents and near misses in p"ace

    Investiation and trend ana"#sis of incidents takes p"ace

    ;au"t reportin process in p"ace

    ehavioura" reportin in p"ace

    4ecord keepin

    C4e-6%ng A%"f%e,' Safety'enior manaement audits or inspections of the airfie"d occur reu"ar"#

    Audits of trainers and trainees occur * inc"udin an# third parties

    :ifferent "eve"s of checks take p"ace for a"" areas of the airfie"d

    4isk assessments remain va"idF

    Identif# fau"t trends and incident trends

    $easure safet# performance

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    Re7%e8 A%"f%e,' Safety

    Identif# root causes of incidents and near misses

    nsure preventative actions are taken and documented

    'hare safet# information !ith airside communit#

    Work !ith others to identif# and understand industr# best practice7nderstand reu"ators future re/uirements in ood time

    stab"ish future safet# ob%ectives

    Throuhout a"" the above bo1es run the themes of "eadership- communication-

    consu"tation and de"iver#.

    The steps to achievin a safe airfie"d !i"" need to inc"ude a c"ear oranisationa"

    structure- settin out c"ear ro"es and responsibi"ities for the individua"s

    invo"ved. 4isk assessments form a vita" part of the manaement of safet# *

    'ection .2 has more detai"s.

    $onitorin and auditin of safet# inc"udin performance measurement shou"d

    be undertaken reu"ar"# in a !a# visib"e to a"" invo"ved.

    1. R%&6 a&&e&&ment an' -#nt"#,

    4isk assessments shou"d be carried out for ever# task "ike"# to be carried out

    b# staff. 4isk assessments can a"so be carried out on a hiher "eve" of business

    risk- for e1amp"e concernin birdstrikes or run!a# incursions.

    There are 5 simp"e steps as out"ined b# the 7G ,ea"th and 'afet# 1ecutiveD


    . Identif# the haards2. :ecide !ho ma# be harmed and ho!

    . va"uate the risks and decide !hether the e1istin precautions are ade/uate

    or !hether more shou"d be done.

    6. 4ecord #our findins

    5. 4evie! #our assessment and revise it if necessar#.

    In practice most aviation situations have a"read# had some sort of risk

    assessment app"ied to them and a"read# have some sort of contro" measures in

    p"ace. In this situation the fo""o!in steps ma# be usefu"D

    . Identif# the tasks?areas to be assessed.2. Ana"#se and break do!n the tasks into manaeab"e pieces

    . Identif# a"" the haards- to !hom- and "ist them.

    6. 4ecord and revie! the e1istin contro" measures (most effective first)

    5. Assess the remainin "eve" of risk usin the matri1

    +. :ecide !hether further action is needed to reduce the "eve" of risk.

    9. Comp"ete and communicate the assessment

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    need to be identified and the probabi"it# of them occurrin shou"d be tabu"ated

    in a rid * an e1amp"e of one is sho!n be"o!.




    2 6 5

    >robabi"it# Conse/uence

    . 1treme"# improbab"e . @o! effect

    2. 1treme"# remote 2. $inor occurrence

    . 4emote . $a%or occurrence

    6. 4easonab"# probab"e 6. ,aardous occurrence

    5. ;re/uent 5. Catastrophic?serious occurrence

    &nce the rid is comp"eted the haards !ith hih probabi"it# and severe

    conse/uences can be prioritised in an action p"an for remedia" action to reduce

    the risk * either the probabi"it# or conse/uences can be reduced b# puttin inp"ace additiona" contro" measures.

    At present there are a number of matrices in use !ith var#in definitions for

    !hat the va"ues 85 mean for both probabi"it# and conse/uence. 'imi"ar"# the

    definitions aainst the red?amber?reen status can var#. It ma# be that in the

    near future a standard "a#out is areed. The actua" detai" of this is not so

    important * the va"ue from this assessment is that it prioritises certain risks for

    remedia" action or revie!.

    4isk assessments shou"d be revie!ed on an annua" basis to ensure the# remain

    va"id. The# shou"d a"so be revie!ed after an# incident or accident. This is

    particu"ar"# important to ensure an# "essons "earnt from an accident or seriousincident are incorporated into the risk assessment !hich ma# not have been

    thouht of !hen it !as oriina""# !ritten. ,ere are some suested areas for


    'taff TasksD

    Aircraft marsha""in

    ird contro" and use of firearms

    4un!a# inspections

    1posure to $$$;

    4un!a# chane procedures 7se of airfie"d c"eanin vehic"es

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    7se of sno! remova" vehic"es

    'pi""ae c"ean up process

    7se of airbrides

    Activatin "o!8vis procedures

    Aircraft recover# actions

    usiness 4isks

    4un!a# incursions

    'no! 3 ice procedures

    Aircraft8aircraft co""ision on the round

    ;&: damae to aircraft

    Aircraft fire

    $a%or birdstrike causin accident

    @oss of supp"# of uti"ities

    ATC evacuation?"oss of ATC service

    1.$ O--+!at%#na, Hea,t4 2 Safety

    The hea"th and safet# of those !orkin airside needs to be iven carefu"

    consideration. 4isk assessments shou"d be carried out coverin each task that

    staff are re/uired to comp"ete. ('ee previous section). An airport shou"d a"so

    ensure that third part# companies operatin airside a"so have comp"eted risk

    assessments for the activities of their staff. &nce the haards and residua" risks

    have been identified the haard shou"d be reduced. &ne method to do this is to

    consider the fo""o!in options * item bein the best and item + bein theminimumD

    . "iminate * cease doin the task- remove the haard a"toether

    2. 4educe * reduce the time e1posed to the haard- substitute

    somethin "ess haardous (e a 2v s#stem to rep"ace a 260v s#stem).

    . Iso"ate * ph#sica""# iso"ate peop"e from the haard * fit uards-

    enc"ose the haard.

    6. Contro" * put in p"ace a safe s#stem of !ork- re/uire permits to !ork

    to be issued- put supervision in p"ace- re/uire staff to use trainin and

    fo""o! procedures.

    5. >> * issue persona" protective e/uipment appropriate to the haard

    +. :iscip"ine * put procedures in p"ace re/uirin staff to behave in a

    particu"ar !a#.

    'taff shou"d then be encouraed to !ear the re/uired >> and fo""o! the

    procedures !hen carr#in out a task.

    Items of >> ma# inc"ude * ear defenders- hi8visibi"it# tabards?%ackets- safet#

    shoes- "oves etc

    Idea""# a"" airside users shou"d !ork in a safet# cu"ture !here it is e1pected

    that if >> is not !orn an#one from an# other oranisation can cha""ene an


    Idea""# this sub%ect shou"d be revie!ed %oint"# b# a number of companies thatoperate in the same area and %oint !ork undertaken to reduce e1posure. This

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    approach can be app"ied to noise- fumes- s"ips?trips?fa""s- muscu"o8ske"eta"

    disorders arisin from manua" hand"in or eronomic issues. 4evie!in

    causes of staff absence can revea" trends that can usefu""# focus preventative


    4emova" of the source of the prob"em is the best method to brin about

    improvements * !earin >> is rea""# the "ast step !hen nothin e"se can beachieved to reduce the e1posure.

    1.( Staff -#m!eten-%e& t"a%n%ng "e9+%"ement& an' -#m!eten-y -4e-6&

    'taff shou"d be trained for each task the# are re/uired to carr# out. The detai"s

    of such trainin !i"" var# dependin on the persons e1perience and

    backround and the comp"e1it# of the task. Ge# e"ements of trainin to be

    addressed inc"ude

    Theoretica" trainin

    >ractica" trainin inc"udin demonstration.

    Testin understandin and demonstratin abi"it# are ke# parts to the successfu"

    comp"etion of trainin.

    In order to be competent at a task the individua" shou"d then demonstrate that

    the theor#- practica" trainin and "oca" kno!"ede can be app"ied toether in a

    satisfactor# !a# * this is the demonstration of bein competent.

    Competenc# checks can easi"# be comp"eted durin da#8to8da# activities if

    someone suitab"e accompanies the individua" on a task the# are re/uired to

    comp"ete and records a"" the steps taken to achieve the task. An e1amp"e of a

    competenc# check sheet for aircraft marsha""in is inc"uded at Anne1 A.

    :ependin on the fre/uenc# of a task- refresher trainin shou"d be arraned at

    a suitab"e opportunit#.

    ;or a team or section to be reconised as competent- periodica" audits or

    checks shou"d be carried out and recorded- addressin an# shortfa""s b#

    revie!in the trainin materia"- refresher trainin or the fre/uenc# of refresher

    trainin. 'imi"ar"# after an# incident or accident it ma# be prudent to revie!

    trainin- refresher trainin and the competenc# checkin process to ensure it

    remains ade/uate.

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    1.* A%"&%'e %n&!e-t%#n& an' a+'%t& 0 "+n8ay ta)%8ay a!"#n& &+"fa-e&

    ma"6%ng& an' ,%g4t%ng

    A ke# aspect of ensurin airside is a safe p"ace for the activities to take p"ace

    invo"ves inspections and audits. A"" the faci"ities on the airfie"d need to be

    periodica""# checked to ensure the# are serviceab"e and avai"ab"e for use.

    >articu"ar attention needs to be paid to the aircraft movement area- inc"udin

    the run!a#- ta1i!a#- apron inc"udin airside roads and rass areas.

    The purpose of such inspections is to ensure thatD

    Ho ;&: is present- The surface condition is suitab"e (no "oose materia")-

    Ho birds or other !i"d"ife are present-

    The paint markins are visib"e and correct-

    The "ihtin is serviceab"e-

    The sins are visib"e and correct-

    /uipment provided is safe for use and serviceab"e etc.

    It is often beneficia" to repeat these inspections after dark to check the "ihtin-

    sins and markins.

    The importance of di"ience and accurate recordin of these inspectionscannot be overstated. To reinforce this it is ood practice to check that the

    checks have been carried out and a"so to check the /ua"it# of the checks b# the

    supervisor on dut#. ;urthermore if senior manaement a"so carr# out a

    periodic check to ensure that the records have been comp"eted- a"" fau"ts

    notified and passed for rectification and a"so visits the airfie"d to check that

    ever#thin has been reported- this adds a further reinforcement of the

    importance of these tasks.

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    1. A&&et management 0 Un:&e"7%-ea/%,%ty "e!#"t%ng an' "e-t%f%-at%#n

    Asset $anaement is a structured method that addresses maintenance

    responsibi"ities- o!nership of items on the airfie"d- remova" from service and

    return to service procedures.A"" assets of the airfie"d shou"d have a c"ear o!ner !ithin the oranisation.

    The o!ner shou"d be a named individua". The benefits of this process inc"ude

    c"arit# of !ho is responsib"e for !hich items- thus preventin possib"e aps in

    o!nership of certain items. This o!ner is re/uired to ensure that each asset is D

    4eistered !ith a uni/ue identification

    @eve"s of serviceabi"it# are areed

    &peratin instructions are produced to enab"e staff to make safe use of

    the asset and checks are made that the# are fo""o!ed in practice.

    Trainin for staff to ensure the# are competent * both operators and

    maintenance personne" A maintenance strate# e1ists to be carried out b# trained and

    competent peop"e

    A maintenance inspection reime is in p"ace and is carried out in

    accordance !ith a specified scheme and schedu"e.

    Access strate# to ensure interit# !hen out for maintenance

    reconisin that even vita" pieces of e/uipment need to be off8"ine for


    A process is in p"ace to aree ho! modifications shou"d be desined-

    authorised and introduced

    &perationa" time !indo!s shou"d be areed definin !henmaintenance !ork can occur.

    A c"ear positive and unambiuous handover process occurs !hen

    assets are taken out and returned to service-

    A !orks authorisation and contro" procedure is in p"ace

    Continenc# p"ans to dea" !ith an# fai"ures

    An# "ea" or statutor# checks are comp"ied !ith- inc"udin fire

    strateies- certification re/uirements etc

    'afet# records are maintained

    Chane contro" process is in p"ace- inc"udin subse/uent

    communication to affected parties. ;undin for maintenance and capita" rep"acement is ac/uired.

    A"" the above processes and activities shou"d be recorded and documented.

    These are ke# e"ements but are no means e1haustive.

    1..1 Fa+,t Re!#"t%ng

    ;au"t reportin shou"d be eas# to do in order to ensure a"" observed fau"ts

    actua""# et reported. The process shou"d enab"e a specific "ocation and

    ade/uate detai" to be iven to ensure the correct "ocation or piece of e/uipment

    is identified a"on !ith the e1act nature of the reported fau"t. ;urthermore it

    shou"d be possib"e for those invo"ved in airfie"d safet# to subse/uent"# trackthe proress of the rectification !ork and to be a!are !hen the fau"t is

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    comp"ete"# rectified. This is important !hen conditions chane such as the

    onset of darkness or a deterioration in visibi"it#. ,istorica" records shou"d be

    kept and these can form a usefu" database of fau"t histories.

    1.; A%"&%'e D"%7%ng t"a%n%ng +&e #f RTF a!"#n an' man#e+7"%ng a"ea

    :rivin airside presents a uni/ue set of circumstances to drivers !ho ma#

    a"read# be e1perienced drivers on the pub"ic roads. 4e/uired kno!"ede

    inc"ude particu"ar"# hih a!areness and fami"iarit# !ith aircraft operations.

    $edica" standards for drivers shou"d be imp"emented either to the same or a

    hiher standard than those re/uired for drivin on the pub"ic roads especia""#

    in terms of visua" standards (co"our perception and e#esiht).

    Airport ru"es need to be !ide"# disseminated- tauht and tested in trainin and

    reinforced durin da# to da# operations. At most airports there are 2 "eve"s to

    bein competent to drive airside * one concerns an abi"it# to drive- hand"e and

    understand the t#pe of vehic"e to be driven- and the second is to understand the

    eoraph#- "a#out- ru"es and procedures for drivin safe"# at #our particu"arairport. Trainin shou"d be provided to ensure these re/uirements are met. A

    test shou"d form part of the driver trainin and on"# on successfu" comp"etion

    of this shou"d a :rivin >ermit be issued to an individua".

    1.;.1 RTF t"a%n%ng

    If the driver is re/uired to use the 4T; to communicate then trainin shou"d be

    iven in the correct use of 4T;- standard phraseo"o# etc. If the vehic"e is

    re/uired to communicate !ith ATC then more forma"ised and detai"ed trainin

    shou"d be iven to ensure professiona" 4T; standards are adhered to !hen

    operatin amonst aircraft and communicatin !ith ATC. 'uested trainin

    materia" shou"d inc"ude

    >hraseo"o# and transmittin techni/ue

    @oca" ca"" sins

    4ead8back re/uirements and understandin of c"earances

    4adio fai"ure procedures

    1.;. A!"#n A"ea& D"%7e" T"a%n%ng

    Trainin shou"d contain the fo""o!in

    4eu"ator# re/uirements

    @oca" re/uirements and procedures

    >ersona" responsibi"ities

    Airport "a#out and oranisation- speed "imits- parkin- heiht

    "imitations etc

    ehic"e standards

    Traffic ru"es

    @o! visibi"it# and niht time haards and precautions

    Aircraft and pedestrian haards

    :rivin on aircraft stands

    'ecurit# procedures

    merenc# procedures

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    1.;.$ Man#e+7"%ng A"ea D"%7e" T"a%n%ng

    This re/uires a further "eve" of kno!"ede- particu"ar"# in drivin safe"# round

    the airfie"d in darkness and in @o! isibi"it# conditions. A detai"ed

    eoraphica" kno!"ede is re/uired a"on !ith a detai"ed understandin of theprocedures- inc"udin proficient use of 4T;. The same standards shou"d be

    re/uired of a"" drivers- inc"udin airport and emerenc# services staff.

    :etai"s inc"ude

    isua" fami"iarit# * run!a#s- he"icopter aimin points- sins 3

    markins- I@' areas etc.

    ;orma" c"assroom instruction

    @ea" re/uirements * enera" and specific to each airport

    Airfie"d "a#out and map readin

    A!areness of haards * %et b"ast and enine inestion

    ehic"e re/uirements * 4?T and obstruction "ihts 4adio fai"ure procedures

    @iht sina"s

    ;&: procedures

    Adverse !eather inc"udin "o! visibi"it# procedures- sno!- ice 3


    A!areness of haards drivin at niht

    merenc# procedures

    The daners of run!a# incursions

    An# third part# providers of trainin shou"d be audited. 4efresher traininshou"d be undertaken * a #ear"# c#c"e is suested.

    Idea""# the number of drivers permitted to drive on the manoeuvrin area

    shou"d be kept to the minimum. :rivers ma# re/uire a certain amount of apron

    drivin e1perience before bein permitted to drive on the manoeuvrin area.

    A number of run!a# incursions have been caused b# vehic"es unintentiona""#

    enterin a run!a# and hence the need for thorouh trainin and e1ce""ent

    eoraphica" a!areness.

    1.< O!e"at%#n #f 7e4%-,e& a%"&%'e

    @oca" ru"es for operatin vehic"es on the airfie"d shou"d be !ide"#

    promu"ated to a"" users. 4e/uirements shou"d inc"ude thins such asD

    Airside vehic"e permits

    'peed "imits in defined areas-

    ehic"e serviceabi"it# standards-

    nvironmenta" or emissions standards-

    >arkin re/uirements-

    @iver# or markins-

    4e/uirements for obstruction "ihts- 7se of "ihts in darkness-

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    'ecurit# of "oads-

    The use of ta1i!a# crossins-

    @imitations on the numbers of trai"ers to!ed-

    4u"es for operatin vehic"es on stands and around aircraft-

    Who has riht of !a#-

    >ena"ties for non8adherence to the ru"es-

    ,eiht restrictions- etc

    'pecia"ist vehic"es ma# need variations on the standard ru"es dependin on

    their nature. An# non8standard operations !i"" need c"ear"# communicatin to

    a"" other road users so the# are a!are of the situation.

    Aircraft tus are an e1amp"e of this. Areed operatin procedures need to be in

    p"ace and other road users and ATC need to be invo"ved in areein such


    Aircraft tus re/uire specia" procedures due to their sie- manoeuvrabi"it# and

    nature of operation movin aircraft on the manoeuvrin area.

    T#pica""# an aircraft pushback invo"ves at "east 2 round staff.

    4e/uirements ma# inc"udeD

    communication bet!een the tu cre! and the f"iht deck- and bet!een

    the tu cre! and ATC must be maintained

    coordination of actions must be achieved coverin the fo""o!in points

    8 app"ication? re"ease of the aircraft brakes

    8 ATC permission to pushback

    8 aircraft enine start8 app"ication?re"ease of aircraft brakes

    8 to! bar disconnection ? raisin or "o!erin of the aircraft if

    to!bar"ess tu used- remova" of steerin pins and ear "ocks-

    tu cre! at a safe distance for aircraft to ta1i

    Tu drivers shou"d maintain a "istenin !atch on the appropriate ATC

    fre/uenc# and be capab"e of c"ear use of the 4T.

    Man#e+7"%ng a"ea '"%7%ng

    Airports shou"d have in p"ace a trainin- "icensin and assessment process.

    &n"# those !ith a %ustified purpose shou"d be permitted to drive on themanoeuvrin area in order to minimise the overa"" risks. It is a"so possib"e to

    re/uire a certain amount of manoeuvrin area drivin to be comp"eted to

    maintain a current permit to drive.

    1.= >e4%-,e !e"m%t& 0 "e9+%"ement& f#" 7e4%-,e&

    ;or a vehic"e to be ranted airside access it is a common re/uirement for a

    permit to be issued. The rantin of a permit shou"d re/uireD

    'uitab"e "iver# and markin of the vehic"e-

    The presence of an obstruction "iht-

    The inc"usion of the vehic"e heiht !ithin the cab visib"e to the driver

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    >roof of the serviceabi"it# and maintenance of the vehic"e-

    >rovision of third part# insurance cover to the re/uired "eve".

    1.1? A%"&%'e C#n&t"+-t%#n W#"6& : C#nt"#, #f -#nt"a-t#"&

    Construction and heav# maintenance activities need to occur from time to in

    airside areas. If aircraft operations are to continue around the site or access is

    re/uired throuh airside areas there are a number of precautions that shou"d be

    taken to enhance the safet# of the !ork. It is recommended that a Works

    >ermit s#stem is used to ensure permissions are recorded and areed bet!een

    the Airport and ATC and briefed to the contractors so the# are fu""# a!are of

    !hat the# can and cannot do.

    An e1amp"e of a Works >ermit form is inc"uded in Anne1

    Aspects of contro" ma# inc"udeD

    7nescorted contractor drivers must undero airside driver trainin

    Access routes shou"d be areed to minimise interference !ith the

    operation on the apron.

    'taff access routes shou"d a"so be areed and if such a route does not

    e1ist then a risk assessment shou"d be undertaken to ensure access can

    be achieved safe"#.

    ,ours of operation shou"d be areed.

    'ervice c"earance checks shou"d be undertaken before !ork

    commences to ensure cab"es or pipes are not damaed.

    'uitab"e site fencin shou"d be insta""ed to protect from %et b"ast and to

    prevent ;&: escapin from the site. This shou"d be c"ear"# visib"e and

    "it at niht.

    'mokin restrictions shou"d be described and enforced a"on !ith an#

    hot !orks restrictions (possib"# invo"vin a separate hot !orks permit)

    The use of "ook8outs and?or a "istenin !atch on the appropriate ATC

    fre/uenc# ma# be re/uired- a"on !ith suitab"e trainin for this task.

    An# cranes are suitab"# "it and operatin heihts do not infrine the

    protected surfaces.

    Can activit# in the site or access to it continue in darkness or in "o!

    visibi"it# conditionsF ,o! !i"" contractors kno! "o!8vis conditions

    have startedF

    :o the vehic"e traffic "eve"s re/uire chanes to the road "a#outF

    :o vehic"es re/uire escorts to cross ta1i!a#s to access the site F In

    da#"iht and darknessF In conditions of reduced visibi"it# F

    Are ta1i!a# restrictions re/uiredF If so "ihtin and markin of the

    ta1i!a#s ma# need to be a"tered.

    If stron !inds are forecast !hat precautions shou"d be taken to ensure

    the site does not enerate ;&:F

    :o vehic"es "eavin the site need to be c"eaned or !ashed to prevent

    mud bein depositedF

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    In terms of customer service and the avai"abi"it# of faci"ities a schedu"in

    process shou"d be in p"ace to ensure that construction !orks or maintenance

    !orks do not c"ose or restrict too man# stands or operationa" areas at the same


    A check"ist for estab"ishin !orks sites and returnin them to operationa" use

    is inc"uded at Anne1 C.'ection .6 detai"s the assessment and authorisation of cranes and other


    1.11 FOD 3"e7ent%#n

    :ebris on the airfie"d c"ear"# presents a haard to aircraft. ducation of a""

    airport staff about the haard such debris presents is important * idea""# this

    can be achieved as part of the process to rant staff airside access (issuin an

    I: card). >revention throuh education is the first step. ,o!ever it is a"so

    necessar# to have a process for reu"ar"# c"earin parts of the airfie"d-

    especia""# the apron areas- of rubbish. It shou"d be ever#oneEs responsibi"it# ifthe# see an# ;&: to remove it. ins shou"d be provided in some areas for

    rubbish to be deposited. 'pecia"ist teams of staff !ith s!eeper vehic"es and

    brushes ma# be re/uired at some airports.

    &ther measures can he"p reduce the risks from ;&:D these inc"udeD

    nsurin a"" air"ines?hand"in aents check an aircraft stand prior to the

    arriva" of the f"iht

    Insta""in catch fencin in open areas of the airfie"d to trap !ind8b"o!n

    debris such as ne!spapers and p"astic sheetin

    &ranisin %oint airport * air"ine * hand"er apron ;&: !a"ks to checkfor ;&: and to identif# the source of it.

    &ranisin campains and pub"icit# to remind staff of the daners

    presented b# creatin ;&:

    nsurin contractors invo"ved in construction pro%ects are a!are of the

    need to contain a"" their materia"s on8site and not a""o! spi""aes to

    enter the aircraft areas

    &ranisin a run!a#?ta1i!a#?stand inspection or s!eepin schedu"e of

    suitab"e fre/uenc#

    Ana"#sin items of ;&: to identif# the "ike"# contributors

    4evie!in items of ;&: at Airside 'afet# Broup meetins invo"vinair"ines- hand"in aents- support companies and aircraft maintenance


    Airport operators shou"d inc"ude aircraft maintenance oranisations in their

    ;&: revie!s as too"s and chocks have been accidenta""# "eft in aircraft !hich

    subse/uent"# fa"" out and become serious items of ;&:.

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    1.1 A'7e"&e Weat4e" O!e"at%#n&

    Adverse !eather presents particu"ar difficu"ties in maintainin the norma"

    operation- in terms of both run!a# capacit# and safet#. @oca" procedures

    shou"d be in p"ace for a contro""ed and measured response to var#in

    conditions. Inevitab"# these procedures ma# resu"t in a reduction of capacit#

    but shou"d not resu"t in a reduction of safet#.

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    1.1.1 Sn#8 @ %-e

    When sno! and ice occurs on an airfie"d there are 2 main conse/uences *

    a reduction in surface friction and a coverin of surfaces- "ihtin and

    sinae. Airports affected b# sno! shou"d have procedures for c"earin

    run!a#s ta1i!a#s and aprons and de8icin pavements.

    /uipment and resources !i"" need to be provided on a sca"e dependin on

    the sie of the airport and the amount and occurrence of sno! and the

    re/uired time to re8openin after run!a# s!eepin.

    4un!a# friction readins ma# be taken after sno! remova" to check the

    effects of the remova" and to assist decisions if further treatment is

    re/uired. 'no! banks shou"d be kept to the sies specified in Anne1 6.

    :etai"ed "oca" procedures are re/uired for the p"annin- activation and

    operation of sno! c"earin e/uipment and staff. T#pica" priorities are to

    c"ear the run!a# first inc"udin an# rapid e1its- then the ta1i!a#s- then the

    apron areas. 'eparate teams can achieve a /uicker return to service than asin"e team. 'afet# of both aircraft and staff (especia""# on the apron areas)

    is important. Ade/uate surface !ater run8off contro"s must be in p"ace to

    prevent "are /uantities of pavement and aircraft de8icin f"uid reachin

    the "oca" rivers or !ater supp"ies.

    ;urther detai"s are to be found in ICA& :oc =9 Airport 'ervices $anua"

    >art 2 * >avement 'urface Conditions.

    'pecific activities !i"" var# from airport to airport and are too detai"ed to

    itemise here. Benera" princip"es inc"udeD

    >reparation and p"annin * e/uipment avai"abi"it#- staff rosters etc

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    Communication of the sno! p"an to air"ines- hand"ers- ATC etc

    settin out !hat preparation and c"earance activities !i"" take p"ace

    !hen different t#pes of !eather forecast are received.

    Communication of sno! !arnins !hen sno! is forecast

    Identification of sno! remova" areas ? dumpin "ocations

    Communication of run!a# openin estimates to ATC- air"ines etc

    1.1. St"#ng 8%n'&

    'tron !inds can cause sinificant disruption to operations on the airfie"d.

    The main haards are aircraft enine inestion- airframe damae and

    persona" in%ur#. A s#stem shou"d be in p"ace to brin to the attention of a""

    staff an# forecast conditions of stron !inds. To minimise the haard it is

    ood practise for the airport to pub"ish a set of re/uirements detai"in

    actions other parties shou"d take upon receipt of stron !ind !arnins.

    These can be raded dependin on the forecast !ind speed and ma1imum

    ust speeds and shou"d inc"ude appropriate restrictions- e1amp"es of !hichare as fo""o!sD

    7se of airbrides for passener embarkation ? dep"anin

    'ecure "oose caro and baae containers ensurin the# are tied do!n

    Additiona" chockin re/uirements of parked aircraft

    >arked aircraft ma# need orientatin into !ind

    Waste containers shou"d be secure"# fastened

    ehic"es to have parkin brakes set or to be chocked

    Arrivin aircraft must receive positive chockin communication from

    round cre! before re"easin parkin brake 4estrictions on !orkin at heiht in maintenance areas

    'ecure !indmi""in prope""ers

    ar"# fue""in of aircraft to increase ba""ast

    4estrictin the e1tension of caterin and other scissor "ift vehic"es

    4estrictions on aircraft to!in

    Aircraft doors not to be opened

    Aircraft rubbish to be immediate"# removed and not "eft on stand

    'uspension of aircraft fue""in

    Contractors !orks areas to be secured

    An# items seen bein b"o!n b# the !ind shou"d be reported


    1.1.$ St#"m& : ,%g4tn%ng

    @ihtnin !arnins can be issued based on forecasts of "ihtnin in the

    area or measurement of actua" "ihtnin in the c"ose vicinit# of the airport.

    If there is a hih "ike"ihood of "ihtnin activit# the fo""o!in precautions

    can be takenD

    8 suspension of non8essentia" activities in open areas

    8 keepin c"ear of an# ta"" or meta" ob%ects

    8 restrictions on !orkin at heiht8 cease aircraft marsha""in service

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    8 cease headset communication bet!een tu cre! and cockpit

    8 cease "oadin and un"oadin of aircraft

    8 cease refue""in of aircraft

    1.1.( L#8 >%&%/%,%ty 3"#-e'+"e&

    &perations in "o! visibi"it# !ere introduced man# #ears ao. Airfie"dprocedures need to be in p"ace to ensure ade/uate separation is maintained

    bet!een aircraft- vehic"es and other users of the airfie"d since visua"

    separation invo"vin aircraft cannot be re"ied upon and certain naviationa"

    aids re/uire additiona" protective measures. :ependin on the visibi"it#-

    restrictions ma# be re/uired to be put in p"ace concernin run!a# capacit#

    areed !ith ATC. If operations can continue in Cateor# 2 or Cateor#

    conditions !i"" depend on the avai"abi"it# of suitab"e naviation aids-

    meteoro"oica" observations- secondar# po!er supp"ies and authorised

    procedures. Additiona" restrictions on the airfie"d ma# inc"udeD

    >h#sica" protection of the I@' ("idepath and "oca"iser)

    >ossib"e ph#sica" c"osure of some access routes to the airfie"d for

    vehic"es- such as ta1i!a# crossins

    Chanes to the !a# ta1i!a# crossins are to be used

    4estrictions on vehic"es operatin on the ta1i!a#s- on"# a""o!in those

    trained to operate under positive ATC 4?T contro"

    4estrictions on the to!in of aircraft in certain areas

    4estrictions on the t#pes of !ork and areas of the airfie"d !here

    contractors or maintenance staff can !ork

    In order to maintain capacit# it is preferab"e to take some preparator#actions for operations in "o! visibi"it# before the actua" !eather conditions

    deteriorate. Thus !hen visibi"it# does drop further there is no time !asted

    in estab"ishin @>s.

    :etai"ed steps to be taken !i"" depend on man# "oca" factors at each

    airport- such as run!a# eometr#- "ihtin s#stems- ATC faci"ities etc.

    To advise drivers of vehic"es of the onset of these procedures it ma# be

    necessar# to activate a number of sins around the airfie"d to advise them-

    or have a radio based method of notification both for activation and de8

    activation of these procedures

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    1.1.* A%"-"aft 'e:%-%ng

    Aircraft de8icin is often carried out b# air"ines or their hand"in aents to

    specific standards identified b# contro" authorities such as nationa" aviation

    authorities. These t#pica""# cover product approva"- methods of app"ication

    and ho"dover times. Airports need to cater for this activit# and provide

    faci"ities such as space or areas for de8icin- inc"udin f"uid capture or

    treatment. 'ome airports co""ect and rec#c"e the used f"uid.

    >reventative steps must be taken to ensure "are /uantities of f"uid do not enter

    the "oca" rivers or contaminate !ater courses. This ma# be done throuh the

    desination of certain areas for de8icin aircraft or definin ho! the task !i""

    be undertaken.

    1.1$ 3"#m+,gat%#n #f %nf#"mat%#n ,#-a, a%"!#"t %n&t"+-t%#n& t# +&e"&

    >rocedures shou"d be estab"ished to enab"e the dissemination of aeronautica"

    information to users. H&TA$s inc"udin temporar# restrictions due to sno!

    c"earance- "o! visibi"it# conditions or !orks in proress ma# need to be

    issued. &ther mechanisms ma# be appropriate for "oca" dissemination such as

    usin ATC to broadcast on ATI' (Automatic Termina" Information 'ervice).

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    An effective method of communicatin "oca" ru"es or instructions to airport

    users is re/uired. Temporar# chanes to procedures- road "a#outs- apron

    chanes etc need to be communicated to re"evant users. This can take the form

    of separate notices or instructions circu"ated e"ectronica""# to users as and

    !hen re/uired- or one "are manua" that is updated !henever there are

    chanes. This shou"d be !ide"# avai"ab"e to a"" airport users.A suested "ist of sub%ects is as fo""o!sD

    Aircraft b"ast haards

    Aircraft arriva" and departure from stand

    'tand ntr# Buidance? $arsha""in


    ;i1ed "ectrica" Bround >o!er

    $inimum ,3' Induction Trainin for 'taff &peratin Airside


    :isposa" of Waste

    The ,and"in and 'torae of ,aardous $ateria"s


    Aircraft ;ue""in

    Accident 4eportin

    Ho 'mokin Airside

    Adverse Weather * sno! p"an- ice- stron !inds etc

    @o! isibi"it# &perations

    >re !inter a!areness and preparation

    Airside :rivin- &peration of ehic"es Airside ehic"e 'tandards

    nine Bround 4unnin 'afet#

    $aintenance of Aircraft on 'tand

    Aircraft 4ecover#

    4adio Communications

    ATC Communications

    ,e"icopter &perations

    >rocedures for Workin Airside

    >rocedures for the approva" of crane operations at or near the airport

    Aerodrome deve"opment procedures (safeuardin)

    >ersona" >rotective /uipment (>>)

    'afet# of >asseners on the Apron

    Aircraft Turnround $onitorin

    1.1( Eme"gen-y an' C#nt%ngen-y !,ann%ng

    ffective continenc# p"annin for a"" eventua"ities !i"" resu"t in better

    coordination bet!een the various oranisations !hen the# are re/uired to be

    put into practise. Airports shou"d coordinate a"" the emerenc# services and

    practice the activit# in an e1ercise periodica""#. ATC- Airport ;ire 'ervice-air"ines- round hand"ers- >o"ice- "oca" ;ire 'ervice and Ambu"ance 'ervices

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    shou"d be invo"ved in addition to man# aspects of the airport manaement *

    not "east inc"udin the media ? >ub"ic Affairs teams and passener support

    teams in the termina"s. Areed cateories of response shou"d be identified and

    simp"e action sheets itemised for staff on dut# from each oranisation

    invo"ved. These can be distributed to those invo"ved in a set of instructions-

    t#pica""# ca""ed merenc# &rders or simi"ar.

    Cateories of incident ma# inc"ude amonst othersD

    Aircraft accident

    Aircraft accident imminent

    Aircraft round incident

    @oca" 'tandb#

    omb !arnins

    :omestic fires

    @oca" rendevous points shou"d be areed !ith safe procedures for access toa"" parts of the airfie"d !ith the minimum of de"a#. These shou"d be c"ear"#

    sined and marked and kept c"ear at a"" times.

    A re"iab"e activation and communication process is needed to rapid"# ensure

    a"" re"evant parties are informed as soon as possib"e- inc"udin basic

    information about the incident.

    Continenc# p"annin for ma%or incidents shou"d inc"ude consideration of ho!

    the airport !i"" continue to operate !hi"st the incident is dea"t !ith.

    It is ood practise to carr# out reu"ar e1ercises to test a"" these procedures

    !ith a"" the oranisations invo"ved.

    1.1* A%"&%'e Se-+"%ty

    $ost airports have e1istin securit# staff to meet the re/uirements of nationa"

    Bovernments. Airside &perations teams can !ork toether !ith securit# staff

    in a number of !a#s *

    >erimeter fence inspections can be carried out b# Airside &perations

    staff !hi"st carr#in out airfie"d patro"s.

    :etection of an# intruders can be reported to securit#

    The presence of an# birds c"ose to the airfie"d can be reported to

    Airside &perations b# 'ecurit#.

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    . A!"#n Safety

    .1 A!"#n ,ay#+t an' ma"6%ng&.

    The safet# of the operation on an apron area can be enhanced if the area is p"anned

    from the start !ith ade/uate space. ,o!ever man# airports deve"op over time anddo not have the "u1ur# of ade/uate p"annin from da# . 'ome uidance is iven

    in ICA& Anne1 6. ;actors in apron "a#out desin inc"ude the c"earances around

    the aircraft- airside roads- c"ear!a#s and vehic"e parkin space.

    Apron markins shou"d differentiate bet!een those meant for vehic"es and those

    for aircraft * aircraft uidance markins are a so"id #e""o! "ine. ehic"e markins

    can be in !hite or red. The use of co"our can he"p differentiate the purpose of

    markins * for e1amp"e passener !a"k!a#s or evacuation routes ma# be in

    reen- vehic"e parkin areas in red- no parkin areas hatched and aircraft uidance

    "ines in #e""o!. >articu"ar markins to indicate no parkin in areas such as the

    airbride movement area- or around fue" h#drants ma# be usefu".

    . A!"#n %n&ta,,at%#n& 0 f+e, 4y'"ant& FEG3 3CA et-

    arious services ma# be insta""ed on an apron in preference to mobi"e services.

    These can common"# inc"ude

    ;ue" h#drants

    ;i1ed e"ectrica" round po!er

    >re Conditioned Air

    &ther services such as the movement of baae- !ater supp"ies etc are possib"ebut remain re"ative"# uncommon.

    ;ue" h#drants offer improvements to the aircraft turnaround process and can

    de"iver reater vo"umes of fue" than vehic"e tankers. The cost and benefits of such

    a s#stem !i"" ho!ever have to be eva"uated specifica""# at each airport iven the

    traffic "eve"s etc. A!areness of the hoses and e"ectrica" connectors shou"d form a

    part of apron safet# trainin and efforts shou"d be made to hih"iht them visua""#

    to reduce the chances of accidenta" contact. merenc# fue" cut8off s!itches

    shou"d be provided and c"ear"# sined at the head of stand.

    ;i1ed e"ectrica" round po!er (600,) is often provided at airports and is a cost8effective a"ternative to stand a"one enerators- in addition to the environmenta"

    benefits. 'upp"#in the cab"e to the aircraft can be done in 2 !a#s * either via

    underround pits- offerin the cab"e c"ose to the aircraft- or runnin the cab"e on

    "enths of transporter on !hee"s from a storae area at the head of stand.

    Whichever method is used it is ood practice to store the cab"e a!a# after each

    use to reduce the risk of damae to it.

    >re Conditioned Air is an a"ternative to A>7 runnin to coo" or heat the cabin of

    parked aircraft- savin on fue" burn and reducin noise and emissions. It is

    insta""ed at some airports particu"ar"# !here the c"imate is hot. ,oses used for the

    air supp"# to the aircraft shou"d be hih"# visib"e !hen e1tended out to the aircraft

    to avoid accidenta" damae b# vehic"es or bein a trippin haard to staff.

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    If the airport provides these faci"ities then it !i"" be necessar# to produce trainin

    materia" for users to be trained in the safe- correct and proper use of this


    .$ A%"-"aft g+%'an-e &y&tem& 0 7%&+a, '#-6%ng g+%'an-e

    'toppin an aircraft in the correct "ocation to enab"e the airbride and various

    services to successfu""# connect to it re/uires some uidance. ICA& Anne1 6

    refers. The basic e"ements invo"ved are to provide "eft?riht uidance and stoppin

    position uidance. The ca"cu"ation of the aircraft stoppin position needs to take

    into account

    the movement enve"ope of the airbride (if provided)

    the "ocation of the fue" h#drants and "enth of hose avai"ab"e

    the "ocation of an# other fi1ed services (e ;B>)

    the space re/uired around the aircraft for apron servicin

    c"earance from the ta1i!a#

    C"ear"# the aircraft t#pe itse"f is a ke# factor and detai"s !i"" need to be estab"ished

    of the pi"ots e#e position in order for this to be the basis of the overa"" aircraft

    stoppin position.

    $an# different s#stems are in use around the !or"d and it is recommended that

    detai"s of the s#stems in use at #our airport are pub"ished to users.

    '#stems inc"ude simp"e marsha""in to a nose!hee" stoppin position- ABHI' and

    >A>A- and radar based e"ectronic parkin aids that detect the aircraft and offer

    stoppin uidance to the pi"ot on a disp"a# ahead.

    Whichever s#stem is used there remains a need to keep it up to date !ith air"inef"eet chanes.

    .( O!e"at%#n #f a%"/"%'ge& t"a%n%ng !e"m%t& a+'%t&

    Airbrides are unusua" pieces of e/uipment to enab"e passeners to transfer from

    the termina" to a variet# of aircraft t#pes under cover. The operation of the

    airbride re/uires specia" trainin in order for it to be safe"# operated. It is

    recommended that operators receive trainin- theoretica" and practica"- fo""o!ed

    b# a test and successfu" demonstration in order to receive a permit for that t#pe of


    Trainin shou"d inc"ude

    $anoeuvrin- steerin- and speed of operation

    Approach to the aircraft

    'ettin the auto"eve""er

    'ecurit# procedures concernin an# doors

    ackin off the aircraft

    Correct parkin

    merenc# procedures

    Trainin can be provided b# the airport direct"# or iven b# third part# companies

    inc"udin hand"in aents. If other oranisations de"iver trainin then audits of the

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    trainin shou"d be carried out. If ne! airbrides or mode"s !ith different contro"s

    are insta""ed then suitab"e trainin materia" and perhaps specific permits !i"" need

    to be introduced.

    An e1amp"e of an airbride check form is at Anne1 :.

    An e1amp"e of an airbride operator audit form is at Anne1 .

    .* A%"&%'e "#a'& ma"6%ng& an' &%gn&

    4oad markins and sins shou"d as far as possib"e rep"icate those used on the

    pub"ic roads. This !i"" ensure driver fami"iarit# and reduce the chances of


    $arkins shou"d remain in ood condition to ensure the# are visib"e to a"" road

    users in a"" conditions * especia""# at niht. 'inae shou"d simi"ar"# be provided

    to areed standards. Checks shou"d be undertaken from time to time to ensureade/uac#- check that no confusin sins have appeared or siht"ines b"ocked and

    that paint markins remain in ood condition. 'ins shou"d be provided of an

    ade/uate sie and p"aced in ood "ocations !ith c"ear "ines of visibi"it# to those

    e1pected to see them.

    >articu"ar care shou"d be taken !hen estab"ishin temporar# road diversions or

    a"ternative road "a#outs. C"ear ne! sinae shou"d be used and an# redundant

    paint markins shou"d be b"acked out or removed. The chanes shou"d be !ide"#

    promu"ated to a"" road users in advance * especia""# if an# "o!er vehic"e heiht

    restrictions are introduced.

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    . A!"#n -#nt"#, an' &tan' a,,#-at%#n

    The apron is a comp"e1 area of often intense activit# as man# different

    oranisations attempt to turn an aircraft around in a "imited space. Bood apron

    manaement !i"" contribute to!ards reducin the haards. This invo"vesa""ocatin aircraft to stands to ensure there is sufficient c"earance bet!een the

    aircraft and other aircraft- vehic"es or bui"dins. To achieve this and meet

    customer re/uirements it is common for airports to have an areed process for

    a""ocatin stands. The safet# aspects of this invo"ve ensurin that aircraft can on"#

    be a""ocated to stands that are "are enouh to accommodate them !ith the

    re/uired marins. 'imi"ar"# to ensure safet# it is necessar# to kno! !hen aircraft

    arrive and depart from each stand. The e1act ru"es or preferences for !hich

    f"ihts use !hich stands !i"" depend on "oca" areements and passener service

    tarets often "inked to faci"ities or preferred areas !ithin the termina". If a p"an can

    be produced ahead of time based on the schedu"e or updated detai"s this can assist

    in makin best use of the pier served or %ett# served stands avai"ab"e. '#stems canvar# from simp"e maps a""ocatin aircraft to stands b# hand to computerised

    resource a""ocation too"s in more comp"e1 situations.

    >rocedures and communications !ith interested parties !i"" be needed to c"ose

    and re8open stands for p"anned maintenance !ork due to incidents or spi""aes.

    &ften the Apron Contro" s#stems provide the main computerised output to ;"iht

    Information :isp"a#s and other pub"ic information services.

    @o! cost operators ma# have different needs and prefer "esser faci"ities !ith /uick

    turnround times.

    .; A!"#n -,ean,%ne&&

    Geepin the apron c"ean from ;&: is an important aspect of housekeepin and

    preventin ;&: damae to t#res and enines. A"" apron staff of a"" companies

    shou"d be e1pected to remove and dispose of sma"" items of ;&: found on the

    apron. ;&: bins can be an effective part of this process but the# then need

    empt#in periodica""#. Aircraft stands shou"d be inspected before the arriva" of

    aircraft. In addition to these procedures it ma# be necessar# to s!eep the stands-

    airside roads and e/uipment areas to remove a"" debris. This can be done b#

    dedicated staff- contractors usin specia"ist vehic"es or b# brushes operated b#

    hand. /uipment manufacturers create specia"ist vehic"es that offer a variet# of

    sies and methods to remove ;&: from the apron. >articu"ar care and attentionshou"d be iven to !orks sites and contractors compounds. oint air"ine * airport *

    hand"in aent ;&: audits shou"d be undertaken to %oint"# check the amount of

    ;&: on the apron areas and a"so to %oint"# tr# to identif# the sources of it.

    At some airports a pub"ished process of imp"ementin pena"ties is used if

    companies or staff do not maintain a ;&: free area after first havin the ;&:

    pointed out to them. arious "eve"s of financia" pena"ties or other action are in use.

    ;&: shou"d a"so be a standin aenda item on the Airside 'afet# Committee to

    ensure its importance is not forotten.

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    .< A%"-"aft f+e,,%ng %n-,+'%ng &!%,,age !"#-e'+"e& 'ef+e,,%ng

    >hoto Geith rooks

    ;ue""in procedures for aircraft are technica" and detai"ed. ;ue""in can occur from

    bo!sers or from a h#drant s#stem. At modern airports !ith a h#drant s#stem it is

    prudent to ensure that some bo!ser capacit# is retained as this !i"" be re/uired if

    it becomes necessar# to defue" an aircraft for an# reason.

    The ke# points inc"udeD

    'omeone shou"d be nominated as in overa"" chare of the refue""in


    ;ue""in ones of +m shou"d be estab"ished around a"" fi""in and

    ventin points in use on the aircraft and vehic"e

    The aircraft shou"d be chocked

    A"" hoses etc used in fue""in shou"d be e"ectrica""# bonded

    >ersonne" shou"d not be ab"e to enerate sources of inition


    /uipment used shou"d be intrinsica""# safe

    scape routes for staff- passeners and vehic"es shou"d be free of


    Aircraft A>7s shou"d not be started durin refue""in

    If passeners are on board durin refue""in the fo""o!in precautions are


    The Captain- nineer and Airport Authorit# shou"d be made a!are

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    Aircraft emerenc# chute dep"o#ment areas shou"d be c"ear of

    obstructions if no airbride is used

    The aircraft interna" no smokin and e1it sins must be


    Cabin ais"es and emerenc# e1its must be kept c"ear

    >asseners shou"d be advised

    Ade/uate numbers of cabin staff must be present to assist !ith an


    Communication shou"d e1ist bet!een the f"iht deck and the fue""er in


    ;ue""in activities shou"d be inc"uded in apron safet# a!areness trainin for a""

    staff and especia""# in driver trainin to make staff a!are of the risks associated

    !ith the hih pressure hoses de"iverin fue" into aircraft from the h#drants and the

    presence of the e"ectrica" bondin !ire.

    ;ue""in !ith passeners on board the aircraft ma# re/uire additiona" fire servicecover.

    'pi""aes from fue""in can occur and a procedure to absorb the spi"t fue" fo""o!ed

    b# proper disposa" shou"d be devised. At some airports it is possib"e to !ash the

    fue" into the drainae s#stem but at others an absorbent materia" needs to be used

    to soak up the fue" and ensure correct disposa". A re/uirement shou"d e1ist for

    those invo"ved to report a"" spi""aes to the re"evant authorities and the airport.

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    .= A%"-"aft ma"&4a,,%ng

    An aircraft marsha""in service shou"d be avai"ab"e to aircraft on re/uest. 'tandard

    ICA& marsha""in sina"s can be found in various nationa" and internationa"

    documents. A set of marsha""in sina"s are inc"uded in a isua" Aids ,andbook

    produced b# the 7G CAA * detai"s are in the 4eferences section 5.

    $arsha""in trainin can be provided b# the airport or third part# companies.

    Ade/uate trainin and competenc# checks shou"d be iven to ensure staff remain

    current. Hote that different sina"s are re/uired for he"icopter marsha""in.

    Aircraft are permitted at some airports to po!er8back or se"f manoeuvre !ithout

    the use of a push8back tu. In permittin this t#pe of operation a number of factors

    !i"" need to be considered in the risk assessmentD

    %et8b"ast or prope""er b"ast

    noise "eve"s

    communication !ith other users that a po!erback is about to take

    p"ace (especia""# if there is a tai" of stand road) manoeuvrin space

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    $arsha""in sina"s shou"d be performed at a stead# pace and shou"d not become

    st#"ised !ith "oca" variations from the standard. I""uminated marsha""in !ands

    are avai"ab"e for marsha""in in darkness.

    If siht "ines from the approachin aircraft become obstructed durin a manoeuvre

    then consideration shou"d be iven for 2 man marsha""in to ensure continuit# of

    safe uidance is maintained.

    .1? In-%'ent "e!#"t%ng

    When incidents occur in Airside areas there needs to be procedures and processes

    in p"ace to D

    dea" !ith aftermath of the incident.

    report and record a"" the pertinent detai"s of the incident to enab"e

    subse/uent investiation ('ee para 2.)

    These steps inc"ude procedures to ensure

    merenc# services attendance- estab"ishin safe temporar# c"osures of the area affected-

    c"eanin up and returnin to service-

    communication !ith other airfie"d users

    Idea""# there shou"d be a !ide"# kno!n te"ephone number or radio reportin

    method for ever#one invo"ved in- or !itnessin an incident. A sin"e centra"

    te"ephone number shou"d be used that is easi"# remembered. There shou"d be a

    c"ear re/uirement on ever#one !orkin airside to report incidents in a time"#

    manner. Accidents- incidents and near8misses shou"d a"" be reported. A"" incidents

    shou"d be responded to in a positive manner takin each report serious"#. C"ear"#at the reportin stae there shou"d be no a""ocation of b"ame * dea"in !ith the

    aftermath and identif#in the cause are the ke# activities at this stae.

    The staff receivin these ca""s shou"d have action sheets or other s#stem to

    record the ca"" detai"s and subse/uent actions for them to take such as notif#in

    the ;ire 'ervice- Airfie"d &perations etc. 'taff shou"d attend the scene to record a""

    detai"s and if possib"e take photoraphs8 see para 2..

    At some airports an automatic computerised notification s#stem is in p"ace-

    re"a#in ke# incident detai"s over a computer net!ork to interested parties.

    &nce the immediate needs of the peop"e invo"ved have been dea"t !ith the more

    detai"ed report shou"d be comp"eted. This shou"d inc"ude a"" re"evant detai"s in

    order to enab"e a fu"" investiation !hich can identif# the root cause of the

    incident. To assist this process the fu"" detai"s of a"" incidents shou"d be recorded

    on a database !hich enab"es /ueries and detai"ed ana"#sis.

    .11 In-%'ent %n7e&t%gat%#n an' ana,y&%& 0 -#&t& 4#t&!#t& t"en'& -a+&e&

    Individua" incidents shou"d be investiated in order to correct"# identif# the root

    cause or causes. The purpose of doin this is to aid prevention of future possib"e

    incidents. &ften there can be a number of factors that a"" combined at the same

    time to cause the incident. These can be- for e1amp"eD

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    $isunderstood communication

    >oor sins or markins

    >oor trainin of those invo"ved

    Trained staff not actin in a !a# the# !ere trained to

    Too infre/uent refresher trainin

    >oor e/uipment ? mechanica" condition ? mechanica" fai"ure

    Tasks !ith inade/uate resources bein carried out too /uick"#

    ;ai"ure to use >>

    Inade/uate risk assessment


    Inade/uate response to chanin circumstances

    &n a periodic basis an ana"#sis of a"" incidents that have taken p"ace shou"d be

    undertaken. A database shou"d contain a"" detai"s of accidents- incidents and near8

    misses. A c"assification s#stem of incident t#pes ma# be used but there are man#different s#stems in use. A common one is to describe the co""ision such as

    vehic"e8 vehic"e or vehic"e * aircraft. To ain the fu""est picture a"" incidents

    shou"d be inc"uded inc"udin persona" in%uries- damae to vehic"es- e/uipment and

    aircraft. C"assifications can a"so be used to denote the seriousness of incidents.

    Investiative trend ana"#sis can be comp"eted- ana"#sin the databases in a number

    of !a#s !hich ma# inc"ude b#D


    ,and"in aent

    'tand number ? @ocation

    Time of da# ? niht

    'taff trained in the task the# !ere doinF

    'taff !ithin date of refresher trainin re/uirementsF

    Aircraft t#pe ? vehic"e t#pe ? e/uipment t#pe

    Jears of airside e1perience

    T#pe of incident * e s"ips or trips- fa""s from heiht- %et8b"ast- baae

    "oader contactin aircraft fuse"ae etc

    The use of this data is for prevention. 7nderstandin !hat has one !ron in the

    past enab"es steps to be taken to prevent their recurrence in the future.

    The data !i"" revea" the manitude of the prob"em- determine overa"" costs of

    incidents- ana"#se trends to direct future preventative actions- and pinpoint

    particu"ar areas of tasks that are hih risk. Trends in an# of the above factors

    !i"" point to aspects that are in need of revie! and providin trend data to a""

    airside companies co""ective"# !i"" ive incident prevention a hih profi"e. This

    !i"" be enhanced even further if companies can provide indicative costs of

    incidents inc"udin not on"# repair costs but a"so aircraft do!ntime or de"a# costs

    and staff sickness ? costs of overtime providin staff cover.

    Ana"#sis can be presented in a number of !a#sD ,ot8spot maps of incident "ocations

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    Braphs of numbers of incidents b# month

    Braphs of each t#pe of incident b# month

    Braphs of incidents factored per -000 aircraft movements or per 0-000.

    Hote the Apron 'afet# 'urve# conducted b# ACI each Hovember from member

    airports revea"s trends and i""ustrates !a#s in !hich data can be co""ected and


    .1 A%"-"aft t+"n"#+n' !"#-e&& an' a+'%t&

    The aircraft turnround process is the ke# activit# on the apron. It is !here the

    aircraft- man# vehic"es and staff from different oranisations come toether in a

    time pressured and constrained space.

    In the 7G- the ,ea"th and 'afet# 1ecutive have produced a document ,'B 20=

    Aircraft Turnround !hich focuses on the re/uirement for the turnround to be a

    coordinated activit# invo"vin a"" companies.There are a number of soft!are s#stems that assist in p"annin and rea"8time

    a""ocation of staff to tasks invo"ved in the turnround process !hich can hih"iht

    potentia" conf"icts.

    To proactive"# monitor the turnround process and adherence to procedures a

    simp"e step is to samp"e a number of turnrounds per da# and record the findins.

    This can be comp"eted b# video or b# comp"etin a check8sheet !hi"st observin

    the turnround process. An e1amp"e of such a sheet is at Anne1 ;.

    &vera"" scores can be iven and averaes bui"t up for different companies over

    time. Common themes miht revea" areas !orth# of refresher trainin focus.

    .1$ 3a&&enge" e7a-+at%#n !"#-e'+"e& 0 te"m%na, an' a%"-"aft

    >asseners ma# need to be evacuated from aircraft at an# time and a"so

    passeners or staff from bui"dins- termina"s etc. To reduce the haards in these

    time8constrained activities invo"vin a "are number of peop"e an evacuation p"an

    shou"d e1ist.

    This shou"d inc"ude desinated evacuation routes from bui"dins into safe areas on

    the apron. oth routes and safe areas must be kept c"ear of e/uipment and other

    obstructions at a"" times to enab"e their safe use b# passeners !ho !i"" not be in

    fami"iar surroundins. Idea""# the# shou"d be !e"" sinposted or painted on the


    >rocedures for dea"in !ith the evacuation of aircraft shou"d be covered in the

    Airport merenc# >rocedures. 'hou"d an evacuation occur staff shou"d muster

    passeners in a safe area a!a# from and up!ind of the aircraft unti" the

    merenc# 'ervices arrive.

    .1( Haa"'#+& mate"%a,&

    ,aardous materia"s can be safe"# carried in aircraft ho"ds. The merenc#

    'ervices shou"d be ab"e to obtain from the air"ineEs caro manifest particu"ars of

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    materia"s carried on a specific f"iht. ;urther detai"s can be found in the IATA

    Bround ,and"in $anua".

    Airport merenc# 'ervices !i"" re/uire suitab"e >ersona" >rotective /uipment

    to dea" !ith aircraft damae incidents invo"vin modern composites increasin"#

    used in aircraft construction. These man8made minera" fibres ($$$;) posespecific haards !hich re/uire thick protection and masks.

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    $. A%"&%'e Safety

    $.1 3"#te-t%#n #f na7%gat%#n a%'&

    Ge# aids to naviation need to be protected to ensure their continued re"iab"e

    operation. This is particu"ar"# the case if bad !eather can occur * fo- heav# rain-"o! c"oudbase- fa""in sno! etc can a"" reduce visibi"it# into instrument

    conditions. 1amp"es of e/uipment inc"udeD

    I@' "oca"iser and "idepath aeria"s

    I@' sensitive areas

    I44 transmissometers

    &n airfie"d &4s or other beacons

    The e1act protection re/uired !i"" var# on the precise "ocation of the e/uipment.

    The enera" princip"es invo"veD

    keepin vehic"es- contractors and other airport staff a!a# from the faci"it#

    providin !arnin sins- markins or "ihts at the ede of the sensitive

    area to prevent accidenta" intrusion in to the sensitive areas

    providin c"ear surface markins or fences (that do not interfere !ith the

    faci"it# itse"f)

    ph#sica""# p"acin temporar# barriers across certain routes

    roads and access routes shou"d be p"anned to sta# c"ear of such faci"ities

    procedures e1ist to ensure sno! c"earin vehic"es- s!eepin vehic"es or

    rass cuttin vehic"es do not infrine the areas !ithout permission andcoordination !ith Air Traffic Contro".

    $. R+n8ay %n-+"&%#n&

    4un!a# incursions present one of the reatest aviation haards !ith potentia""#

    ver# serious conse/uences. A number of serious fata" accidents have occurred

    around the !or"d resu"tin from run!a# incursions.

    In reconition of the seriousness and ro!in fre/uenc# of run!a# incursions a

    number of #ears ao the ;AA and urocontro" bean a concerted industr# !ide

    revie! to seek to reduce the numbers of run!a# incursions. This !ork in urope

    ave rise to the urocontro" uropean Action >"an for the >revention of 4un!a#Incursions !hich invo"ved man# industr# sectors. This is avai"ab"e on the

    urocontro" !ebsiteK


    The conc"usion !as that a "oca" 4un!a# 'afet# Team shou"d be estab"ished at

    each airport. ;urther detai"s can be found in the urocontro" Action >"an.

    4ecommendations !ere made re"atin toD

    Aerodrome operators

    Aircraft operators

    Air Haviation 'ervice >roviders

    Communications 4eu"ators

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    :ata co""ection and "esson sharin

    $.$ R+n8ay F"%-t%#n Mea&+"ement ma%ntenan-e an' te&t%ng

    4un!a# friction is a ke# aspect of aircraft performance on "andin or departure.

    He!"# bui"t or surfaced run!a#s shou"d have a desin specification to achievehih friction. &nce in use friction can deteriorate due to use- rubber bui"d up or

    contamination b# materia"s such as ice- sno! or sand.

    Thus there are 2 reasons for measurin friction *

    8 trend monitorin of the run!a# surface over time

    8 to check instantaneous friction va"ues in periods of sno! or ice.

    ;riction shou"d be measured periodica""# to ensure the friction va"ue remains

    acceptab"e and resurfacin or treatment is considered !hen the va"ue is "o!.

    ;riction shou"d a"so be measured !hen ice or sno! is present to enab"e operations

    to continue. After the surface is c"eared measurements shou"d be made to ensure

    the effectiveness of the c"earin operation.

    There are various different t#pes of friction measurement devices in use around

    the !or"d. $easurement ma# invo"ve straihtfor!ard use of the e/uipment

    bet!een aircraft movements or ma# invo"ve a ca"ibrated app"ication of !ater

    ahead of the measurement device to obtain standardised readins for a !et


    4esu"ts from friction measurement shou"d be retained to revea" trend information

    over time and to identif# an# particu"ar areas re/uirin attention * for e1amp"e

    rubber deposits in the touch do!n ones.

    ;urther detai"s are to be found in ICA& :oc =9 Airport 'ervices $anua" >art 2

    * >avement 'urface Conditions.

    $.( Ae"#'"#me &afeg+a"'%ng 0 !"e7ent%#n an' %'ent%f%-at%#n #f #/&ta-,e& 0


    ICA& has defined surfaces around a run!a# !hich shou"d be kept free of

    obstructions. :etai"s can be found in Anne1 6.

    These surfaces shou"d be protected from deve"opments that ma# infrine them.To achieve this a safeuardin or checkin process is needed that captures

    app"ications for ne! deve"opments in the re"evant areas !ith the re"evant heiht

    detai"s. Checks can then be made to ensure proposed ne! bui"dins do not

    infrine the protected surfaces. C"ear"# it is far easier to reso"ve these issues at the

    p"annin stae than after construction has started.

    :urin construction of ne! bui"dins it is possib"e that cranes !i"" be used and

    these ma# be erected to a heiht reater than the finished bui"din- even if on"#

    temporari"#. To ensure this is not the case a process shou"d be estab"ished to check

    crane operatin heihts durin on8airport construction and under the protected

    surfaces. Crane heihts shou"d a"so be checked at the p"annin stae of ne!bui"dins as out"ined in the process above. In addition crane operatin heihts

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    shou"d be checked durin construction to ensure thins have not chaned resu"tin

    in the crane operatin at a heiht reater than p"anned. Cranes if erect in the hours

    of darkness shou"d a"so be "it !ith red obstruction "ihts.

    To assist in this process it is often !orth!hi"e if airports contact and educate crane

    operatin companies about the re/uirements for operatin cranes in the vicinit# ofairports.

    'ome airports use a Crane >ermit s#stem that ives authorisation for cranes to

    operate up to a specific heiht in a specific "ocation. An e1amp"e of a crane permit

    form is attached at Anne1 B.

    'urve#s ma# need to be undertaken periodica""# to ensure the safeuardin

    process out"ined above is functionin and a"so to monitor tree ro!th to ensure

    the surfaces are not penetrated. These surve#s shou"d cover the areas !ithin the

    protected surfaces.

    $.* W%,',%fe 4aa"'&

    Wi"d"ife around airports can present serious haards to aircraft operations. The

    most obvious of these is the presence of birds but other anima"s such as deer-

    fo1es and other mamma"s can present a haard.

    Ade/uate fencin around the airside areas is fundamenta" to keepin mamma"s off

    the airfie"d.

    irds present a haard to aircraft in f"iht. irdstrikes !ith civi" aircraft have

    resu"ted in the death of over 250 peop"e to date. C"ear"# it is impossib"e to

    uarantee no birdstrikes !i"" occur but there are a number of activities an airport

    can undertake to reduce the probabi"it# of this happenin.

    These inc"udeD

    Co""ectin accurate information on a"" birdstrikes that occur- inc"udin

    detai"s of the species invo"ved

    &bservations of bird species and bird behaviour both on the airport and in

    the surroundin areas

    Identif#in the haard presented b# each species b# carr#in out a species

    based risk assessment >rioritisin efforts to!ards the most haardous species

    The "arest haard is c"ear"# presented b# "are birds that f"# in f"ocks.

    >ractica" steps that can be taken to reduce the attractiveness of an area to birds


    Cuttin the rass so it does not provide invertebrates but not too short that

    it provides a restin area

    nsurin no ne! !ater features or refuse tips are p"aced around the airport

    that miht enerate haardous f"iht"ines across aircraft arriva" ordeparture routes

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    Hot providin perches- "edes or other structures favourab"e to roostin

    f"ocks of birds

    >"acin nets or other s#stems over !ater features to prevent access

    If raptors or ha!ks are present ensure there are not rabbits or mice

    attractin them to feed

    nsurin no bushes or shrubs are p"anted as part of airport "andscapin that

    produce berries !hich miht attract birds.

    In addition to the habitat manaement steps out"ined above it is ood practise to

    have a bird detection and dispersa" team on dut# !hose ro"e is to detect and

    disperse an# birds seen on the airfie"d. This ma# invo"ve the use of bird distress

    ca""s- she""8crackers or baners and potentia""# shootin if the other methods do

    not deter the birds ade/uate"#. Accurate "oin of a"" bird species- numbers-

    "ocation and behaviours is essentia".

    ;urther uidance is avai"ab"e in the ACI Wi"d"ife ,aard $anua" (2005)

    $. A%"&%'e Safety C#mm%ttee

    An Airside 'afet# Committee shou"d be hosted b# the airport periodica""# to

    revie! safet# in the airside areas. The Committee shou"d consist of air"ines-

    hand"in aents- aircraft caterin companies- aircraft c"eanin companies-

    refue""in companies- ATC * idea""# a"" "are oranisations that operate in airside


    The Terms of 4eference shou"d inc"udeD

    The promotion of safet# a!areness throuh trainin- "icensin and thepub"ication of safet# bu""etins

    stab"ishin and discussin "oca" safet# procedures and uide"ines

    Incident reportin and investiation- subse/uent data ana"#sis and

    dissemination of trends- common causes etc

    Beneration and eva"uation of safet# suestions

    >reparation of reu"ar %oint safet# campains.

    The atmosphere of the roup shou"d be an open one to ma1imise the "earnin

    about improvin safet#. It is suested meetins are he"d either month"# or


    $.; A%"&%'e Safety 3"#m#t%#n

    'afet# !i"" benefit from bein promoted in an airport environment. &ccasiona"

    focus on some particu"ar aspect !i"" make it more memorab"e and reinforce the

    continua" importance of safet#. Co""aboration to promote positive safet# attitudes

    across a"" oranisations !orkin airside is essentia".

    An idea" opportunit# to promote a safet# cu"ture is in trainin !hen staff are ne!

    to the airport. C"ear safet# messaes concernin their responsibi"ities to

    themse"ves and to others !i"" set the scene !e"". ;o""o!in procedures and

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    carr#in out tasks in the !a#s the# have been trained is an important messae to

    push at the start.

    Idea""# on the apron ever#one !ho !orks there shou"d fee" ab"e to point out short8

    cuts or e1amp"es of bad practise to an#one e"se !orkin improper"#.

    4oadsho!s or safet# promotiona" vehic"es cou"d be used to tour the airside

    areas and rest rooms or staff restaurants to brin to the attention of ramp staff the

    "atest safet# messae.

    The annua" ACI 'afet# 'urve# of members airports provides statistics that can be

    used in safet# promotions.

    $.< Sta6e4#,'e"& : Inte"fa-e 8%t4 ATC 8%t4 #!e"at#"& 8%t4 !"#e-t team&

    A c"ose !orkin re"ationship at a professiona" "eve" bet!een the various dut#

    manaers of oranisations such as ATC- the airport- contro" authorities and an#based8air"ines is vita". This shou"d be an on8oin continua" process and idea""#

    invo"ve %oint meetins each da#. In such circumstances individua"s dea"in !ith an

    incident !i"" be ab"e to !ork toether much more effective"#.

    When ma%or deve"opments occur in Airside areas then >ro%ect $anaers can be

    introduced to that forum to dea" direct"# !ith an# issues arisin from the activities

    of the other oranisations.

    Companies providin services on the airport to air"ines such as aircraft c"eanin

    and caterin ma# be present on the airfie"d pure"# due to histor#- havin been

    there for man# #ears- or the# ma# be appointed as a resu"t of a tender or

    /ua"ification process. To that end it is ood practise to set out to the companies

    operatin airside the re/uirements from the airport. These re/uirements ma#


    A re/uirement for the compan# to document and imp"ement its o!n 'afet#

    $anaement >"an coverin a"" safet# aspects of its operation

    A re/uirement for a"" staff to be proper"# trained to carr# out the tasks

    e1pected of them

    Comp"iance !ith airport notices ? directions ? safet# a"erts

    Geepin up to date !ith "eis"ation

    A named safet# manaer is appointed to oversee a"" matters of trainin-

    maintenance of e/uipment

    The compan# !i"" co8operate in the imp"ementation of airport !ide safet#


    >rovide a safe- efficient and hih /ua"it# service !ithout disruption to the

    operation of the airport

    A""o! access to documents

    >articipate in reu"ar %oint inspections of service areas !ith the Airport

    Conduct risk assessments

    nsure c"ean and tid# storae and proper disposa" of materia"s

    Hotif# the airport of an# particu"ar haards

    nsure haardous materia"s are proper"# stored and "abe""ed.

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    nsure a"" p"ant and e/uipment is ade/uate"# and safe"# stored in adverse

    !eather conditions.

    These third part# safet# processes can be used in a number of !a#sD

    In a contractua" re"ationship bet!een the supp"ier and the airport

    As a transparent process enab"in comparison of different companies

    comp"iance !ith each e"ement.

    As an assessment process for future contractua" a!ards.

    $.= Eng%ne "+n:+!&

    nine testin is hand"ed in man# different !a#s at different airports. Ge# factors

    inc"ude if there is a maintenance oranisation based at the airport and a"so the

    pro1imit# of nearb# residentia" areas.

    nine testin ma# be "imited for environmenta" reasons toD &n"# "o! po!er tests at niht !ith a ma1imum duration per run and a

    ma1imum tota" duration for each niht

    &n"# to occur in specific acoustic enc"osures at niht

    &n"# to occur in remote parts of the airfie"d at niht

    &n"# to aircraft needed for an ear"# mornin departure the ne1t da#

    'afet# aspects of enine tests inc"ude

    ,avin a !in8man on the round to ensure no third parties encounter the

    %et b"ast * a "ookout. T!o !in men ma# be needed in bus# situations.

    Continuous contact !ith ATC !hi"st the run takes p"ace >ermission from the airport operator to carr# out a run

    Assessment of the !ind speed and direction

    If ba"ancin thrust is needed from other enines on the other !in

    7se of anti8co""ision and naviation "ihts !hen the run occurs

    7se of cones or other ph#sica" deterrents around the aircraft to improve


    Checkin for ;&: in the area concerned before the run takes p"ace- both in

    front and behind of the aircraft

    nsurin the aircraft brakes are app"ied

    nsurin enine b"ast does not present a haard to an# nearb# staff

    $.1? S!e-%a, f,%g4t&

    >rocedures shou"d be in p"ace to dea" !ith f"ihts of an unusua" nature. These ma#


    &utsie caro f"ihts

    4o#a" f"ihts- I> f"ihts- Bovernment $inisters- 'tate isits etc

    Ammunition or firearms f"ihts

    $i"itar# f"ihts

    ;"ihts shippin specia"ist "ivestock such as racehorses ,e"icopter f"ihts

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    These shou"d idea""# be p"anned some time in advance invo"vin a"" the hand"in

    companies- ATC- contro" authorities etc to understand the specific re/uirements of

    the f"iht and to ensure a"" unusua" matters are identified and p"anned.

    ;actors to consider inc"udeD

    An# specia" approach procedures Aircraft routein from the run!a#

    Aircraft parkin p"ace

    Access airside for an# third parties not norma""# airside

    ehicu"ar routes

    $arsha""in re/uirements

    'pecia"ist caro hand"in faci"ities

    'pacin from other activities

    &ther aircraft arriva" or departure routes affected

    Invo"vement of >ub"ic Affairs teams to hand"e media interest

    $.11 A%"-"aft "e-#7e"y

    Continenc# p"ans need to be dra!n up to hand"e an incident !here a disab"ed

    aircraft needs to be moved. This can invo"ve a re"ative"# simp"e task such as an

    aircraft !ith def"ated t#res to a fu"" accident recover# re/uirin "iftin and movin

    of "are aircraft. &ften this can be a time8pressured situation as the re8openin of

    the airfie"d can depend on the time"# remova" of the aircraft.

    To assist in this process it is beneficia" if detai"ed "a#out dra!ins are avai"ab"e of

    the airport sho!in the "ocations of e"ectricit# cab"es underround- te"ecoms

    !ires- net!ork cab"es- fue" pipes- !ater pipes- fire mains- airfie"d "ihtin circuitsetc. These can be important considerations in dea"in !ith the recover#.

    :ependin on the sie of the aircraft anticipated to be moved and the recover#

    e/uipment avai"ab"e it can be usefu" to carr# out aircraft recover# e1ercises.

    The benefits of this inc"udeD

    'taff fami"iarit# !ith specia"ist e/uipment that is rare"# used

    Increased e1perience in team8!ork !ith the air"ines and their insurers

    Testin of communications protoco"s !ith other oranisations invo"ved

    >ractica" understandin of ho! to move the aircraft and !here to park it

    Avai"abi"it# of cranes and other heav# e/uipment and "ocatin them airside

    1perience !ith chains- pu""in ear and aircraft tus in movin the


    The recover# process !i"" invo"ve "iaison !ith the air"ine and its insurers and !i""

    a"so re/uire permission from Accident Investiators. C"ose "iaison !ith the >o"ice

    !i"" a"so be necessar#.

    Ge# aspects of aircraft recover# inc"ude

    The e1act "ocation and heiht of the aircraft. This ma# necessitate re8

    dec"arin distances for aircraft operations to continue from a reduced

    run!a# "enth.

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1


    The recover# can on"# bein once the passeners have "eft the aircraft

    and the accident investiators ive permission for the aircraft to be


    The air"ines insurers need to ive permission

    It ma# be necessar# to provide mattin or a temporar# road surface to

    either enab"e the aircraft to po!er out of the rass or for a tu to pu"" it


    It ma# be necessar# to off"oad caro and bas in8situ before the

    recover# commences. ,o! !i"" this be achieved F

    :e8fue""in ma# be necessar# 8are there sufficient empt# containers or

    bo!sers avai"ab"e at the airport to enab"e this to happen F

    ;"at8bed trucks ma# be re/uired to transport parts of the aircraft

    '!eepers ma# then be necessar# to c"ean the area after!ards

  • 7/25/2019 Draft Handbook v0.1




    Date: Day/Night: Marshaller: Auditor:

    Aircraft Type: Stand: Weather:

    s - satisfactory n/s - not satisfactory n/a - not applicable



    # Timely arrival of


    s n/s $ Stand size limitation check yes no

    % !D if any removed yes no & "arking of ad#acent aircraft s n/s

    ' "arking of vehicles/e$uipmnt

    s n/s ( "osition of Air%ridge s n/s

    ) Are S&'(s used to assist yes no * "osition of personnel s n/s

    + ""& )orn* +i,vis- feet-ears*

    yes no #, Surface condition check yes no



    ## Aircraft recognition s n/s #$ Manoeuvre planned* yes no#% A)areness of %last/do)n)ash

    yes no #& Ade$uate )ingtipclearance

    s n/s

    #' Aircraft parked into )ind yes no #( Assistance from .nd


    no n/a

    #) Marshaller visi%le to pilot at all times yes no



    #* ocal instructions


    s n/s #+ 0orrect e$uipment used s n/s

    $, Standard 10A! signals used 2 not too stylised- correct speed- clarity of intention s n/s



    $# 0orrect leader vehicle speed s