Dr Jiyoung Song - Lowy Institute for International Policy

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  • THENEXUSBETWEENSECURITYANDMIGRATION

    INAUSTRALIADRJIYOUNGSONG

    DIRECTOR,MIGRATIONANDBORDERPOLICY

    LOWYINSTITUTEFORINTERNATIONALPOLICY

    EMAIL:JSONG@LOWYINSTITUTE.ORG

  • OUTLINE

    Thespiralmodelofinsecurity-migration-security:theory

    Australianmigrationprogrammes:whorecomingtoAustralia?

    CausesofmigrationtoAustralia:whyaretheycoming?

    Securityconcernsovermigrantsandimmigrants

    Policyresponsesandrecommendations

  • SPIRALMODELOFSECURITYANDMIGRATION

    Securityinsendingcountries

    armedconflictsorcivilwarssystematicdiscriminationpoverty,underdevelopmentorlackofeducationnaturalormanmadedisasters

    Transnationalmigration

    regulareconomicmigrationfamilymigrationhumanitarianmigrationmigrantsmugglinghumantrafficking

    Securityinreceivingcountries

    borderprotectionandtransnationalcrimesimpactoneconomycommunitycohesionpublichealth

  • AUSTRALIASMIGRATIONPROGRAMME

  • WHATTHEPOLLSSAY

  • WHATTHEPOLLSSAY

  • MYTHSABOUTMIGRANTSANDIMMIGRANTS

    Myth#1:migrantsareterrorists Myth#2:migrantsarecriminals Myth#3:migrantsaretakinglocaljobs Myth#4:migrantscarrydiseases

  • MYTH#1:MIGRANTSARETERRORISTS

  • MYTH#2:MIGRANTSARECRIMINALS TRICKYONE!

    Asof30June2015,67%oftheAustralianpopulationaged17andoverwasAustralian-bornandthisgroupaccountedfor81%oftheprisonpopulation.Theonethird(33%)ofAustraliansbornoverseasaccountedfortheremaining18%ofprisoners.

    AstudyintheUK,areaswithrefugees/asylumseekersshowhigherinpropertycrimerates

  • MYTH#3:MIGRANTSARETAKINGLOCALJOBS

  • MYTH#4:MIGRANTSCARRYDISEASES

  • POLICYRESPONSE(1):OPERATIONSOVEREIGNBORDERS

    In2011-2013,25,492peoplewhoarrivedinillegalboats

    InSeptember2013,theAbbottgovernment'StoptheBoats'andintroducedOperationSovereignBorders(OSB)whichputthemilitaryincontrolofasylumoperations

    Asaresult,thenumberofillegalboatarrivalsinAustraliafellsignificantly

    DepartmentofImmigrationandBorderProtection(DIBP)grantedprotectionvisasto4,995illegalmaritimearrivals(IMAs)in2012-3,butthatdroppedtojust545in2013-4duetoacaponprotectionvisagrantsthatcameintoeffectinMarch2014

  • POLICYRESPONSE(2):OFFSHOREDETENTIONCENTRES

    AsofFebruary2016,1,379peopleweredetainedonNauruandManusIsland

    highlycost-ineffective.itcosts$1billionayearmorethanfivetimesthebudgetoffalloftheoperationsoftheUNHCRacrossSoutheastAsia

    $55milliontosetuparefugeecampinCambodia.AsatMay2016,threeofthefiverefugeesCambodiareceivedfromAustraliahadchosentoreturntoIranandMyanmar

  • TOP10SUBCLASS457NOMINATEDOCCUPATIONS

    Rank Nominated Occupation (ANZSCO) 2005-06 2008-09 2011-12 2014-15 % increase/decrease 2005-06 to 2014-15

    1 261312 Developer Programmer 906 991 2,028 2,485 174

    2 351411 Cook 831 552 1,561 2,408 190

    3 141111 Cafe or Restaurant Manager 180 301 636 2,037 1,032

    4 225113 Marketing Specialist 765 953 1,440 1,557 104

    5 261111 ICT Business Analyst Not listed Not listed 1,208 1,483 N/A

    6 261313 Software Engineer 445 813 937 1,451 226

    7 242111 University Lecturer 295 508 1,570 1,284 335

    8 224711 Management Consultant 955 671 1,634 1,224 28

    9 351311 Chef 1,027 1,186 872 1,176 15

    10 253111 General Practitioner 976 1,775 1,407 1,133 17

  • CONCLUSION

    migration

    personalsecurity

    communitysecurity

    politicalsecurity

    economicsecurityfoodsecurity

    healthsecurity

    environmentalsecurity

    Securitizationofmigration,heavilycriticised andnegativelyframed

    Humansecurity,abetterandmorecomprehensibleframeworkformigration

    ExtraordinarymeasuressuchasOSBcanbejustifiedifframedinamorehumanepeople-centred waywithalong-termdevelopmentandregionalcooperationinmind

    OSBandrefugeeprotectiongohandinhand