Dr. A.F.M. Kuijper Spaarneziekenhuis, Hoofddorp Amersfoort 28 september 2012

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Transcript of Dr. A.F.M. Kuijper Spaarneziekenhuis, Hoofddorp Amersfoort 28 september 2012

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  • Dr. A.F.M. Kuijper Spaarneziekenhuis, Hoofddorp Amersfoort 28 september 2012
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  • 2010 ACCF/ACR/AHA/NASCI/SCMR Expert Consensus Permanent Cardiac Pacemakers and ICD (1) damage or movement of the device inhibition of pacing output activation of tachyarrhythmia therapy of the device cardiac stimulation heating of the electrode tips -> changes in pacing/defibrillation thresholds, pacemaker ICD dysfunction or damage (including battery depletion), arrhythmia, or death.
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  • 2010 ACCF/ACR/AHA/NASCI/SCMR Expert Consensus Permanent Cardiac Pacemakers and ICD(2) Few small clinical trials under which MR examination with these devices could be conducted safely. Pacemaker-dependent patients were excluded from these studies, no episodes of pacing above the upper rate limit or arrhythmias were noted, though 1 patient had a change in device programming. ICDs and pacemakers manufactured after the year 2000 are more resistant to the electrical and magnetic fields associated with MR examination at 1.5-T. no deaths have been reported under conditions in which patients were deliberately scanned and monitored during MRI, although changes in pacing threshold, programming changes, need for device reprogramming, and possibly battery depletion have been reported.
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  • 2010 ACCF/ACR/AHA/NASCI/SCMR Expert Consensus Permanent Cardiac Pacemakers and ICD(3) 2010 pacemakers in the USA MR unsafe MRI examination of patients with pacemaker - is discouraged - only at highly experienced centers - strong clin. indication, benefits outweigh risk - ICD pts in highly experienced ICD/MRI center
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  • 2010 ACCF/ACR/AHA/NASCI/SCMR Expert Consensus Permanent Cardiac Pacemakers and ICD(4) Retained Transvenous Pacemaker and Defibrillator Leads No studies in MRI with retained pacemaker or ICD leads (either functioning or fractured). Significant heating of the lead tips may occur. Discouraged. MRI in EP center when no alternatives to MRI under compelling clinical circumstances.
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  • J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54:54955
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  • MRI at 1.5-T in pts With ICD Naehle et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54: 54955 18 Nonpacemaker-dependent ICD patients Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) was limited to 2 W/kg. ICDs reprogrammed to avoid competitive pacing and potential pro-arrhythmia: 1) the lower rate limit as low as reasonably achievable; and 2) arrhythmia detection on, therapy delivery off, (detection off programming consumes less battery current). ECG+ pulse oximetry. All ICDs were interrogated before and after the MRI examination and after 3 months, including measurement of pacing capture threshold, lead impedance, battery voltage, and serum troponin I.
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  • MRI at 1.5-T in pts With ICD Naehle et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;54: 54955 All 18 examinations were completed safely. All ICDs interrogated and reprogrammed post-MRI. No changes of pacing capture threshold, lead impedance, and serum troponin I were observed. Battery voltage decreased significantly from pre- to post- MRI. (4 complete, 9 partial recovery, 3 no recov, 2 missing). Mean battery voltage decreased from pre-MRI 3.86 1.48 V, to post-MRI 3.83 1.48 V but was 3.90 1.52 V at FU. In 2 MRI examinations, oversensing of radiofrequency noise as ventricular fibrillation occurred. However, no attempt at therapy delivery was made.
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  • Editorial Roguin JACC 2009 FDA : for some patients, risks of MRI under specific, characterized scanning and monitoring conditions may be acceptable given the diagnostic benefit. Risks of MR scanning should be discussed with the patient, with written informed consent. In ICD patients the MR study should be performed at centers with expertise in MRI and electrophysiology. The MR scan should be optimally planned in order to minimize time and energy. A physician who is knowledgeable in device therapy and programming should be present during the MR scan. Pre-MR reprogramming, careful patient monitoring during MR scanning, and thorough follow-up after MR scanning must be performed. Full resuscitation facilities should be available should any adverse event occur during MR scanning.
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  • Am Heart J 2011;161:1096-105
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  • Safety, feasibility, and diagnostic value of cardiac MRI in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverters defibrillators at 1.5 T Am Heart J 2011;161:1096- Naehle et al
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  • Patients and Methods PM/ICD systems > 3 months after implant stable physical parameters EOL> 6 months pacing lead impedances 200-2000 shock lead impedance, 10-80 stable functional parameters (pacing capture threshold.5 mV). No abandoned leads or presence of other MR imagingincompatible devices.
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  • Device en onderzoeksindicatie
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  • Resultaten procedure safety (1) No unexpected changes in heart rate or rhythm, indicating inhibition of ICD output, shock delivery, or sustained atrial or ventricular arrhythmias. No torque or heating sensation during MR imaging. No changes programmed parameters. No change of pacing threshold No change of pacing lead impedance to >2,000 or 80 or
  • patienten 438 patienten, 555 MRI 237 (54%) pacemaker, 201 (46%) ICD Pacemaker 78% brady, 22% CHB MRI 40% brain, 22% spine, 16% heart 13% abdomen/pelvis, 9% extremiteit 15% repeat MRI 6% > 3 MRI
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  • Acute resultaten Power on reset bij 3/438 (0.7%), 1 MRI stop, 2 uneventfull MRI No device revision, programming, or interventions at MRI examination were otherwise required. In pacemakers without magnet-mode programming capability, reed switch activation by MRI led to transient, asymptomatic asynchronous pacing at the pacemaker-specific magnet rate. No unexpected or rapid activation of pacing was observed during MRI.
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  • Lead Sensing, Impedance, and Capture Thresholds at Immediate and Long-Term Follow-up No immediate or long-term change in variables in any patient was large enough to require lead or system revision or device reprogramming.
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  • Overall, MRI was performed safely in all patients. When the device was located in the MRI field of view, image distortion, signal voids or bright areas, and poor fat suppression were noted. Selecting imaging planes perpendicular to the plane of the device generator, shortening the echo time, and using spin echo and fast spin echo sequences reduced the qualitative extent of artifact. Artifacts, were limited to thoracic examinations, and the great majority of examinations yielded clinically useful information.
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  • Thoracic MRI may pose more risk owing to greater power deposition over the region containing the device. The association between thoracic imaging and long- term right ventricular sensing in our study supports this hypothesis.
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  • MRI bij pacemaker afhankelijke pt (1) 53 pacemaker-dependent patients without ICD underwent MRI without safety issues. It is vital, however, to emphasize the need for appropriate programming of the device to an asynchronous mode, monitoring by qualified personnel, and availability of external pacing backup for such patients
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  • MRI bij pacemaker afhankelijke pt (2) If a power-on-reset event occurs, the device reverts to an inhibited pacing mode. Therefore, in pacemaker-dependent patients, the device may transiently cease pacing owing to EMI, and electrocardiographic monitoring and pulse oximetry are necessary so that the scan can be stopped if inhibition of pacing is noted.
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  • Conclusie 1 Using a protocol based on device selection and programming, MRI can be performed safely in patients with certain pacemaker and ICD systems. Given the potential for changes in device variables and programming, monitoring by device experts is necessary.
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  • Conclusie 2 The decision to perform MRI in each patient with an implantable device should be made by balancing the potential benefit of MRI against the attendant risks. Because thoracic MRI sequences have a greater effect on device variables and are more likely to result in artifacts, these sequences should be reserved for patients with an absolute clinical need.
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  • Magnasafe Registry (Russo ACC 2012) multicenter, prospective study designed to determine the frequency of major adverse clinical events and device parameter changes for 1500 patients with standard implantable cardiac electronic devices who undergo clinically-indicated, non-thoracic MRI at 1.5T.
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  • Magnasafe pts en methods Device interrogation pre- and post-MRI. Pacemaker-dependent subjects were programmed to an asynchronous pacing mode, and non-dependent subjects had pacing functions deactivated. For ICD patients, all therapies were programmed to off for those not pacing-dependent; ICD pacing-dependent ICD subjects were excluded. Primary study endpoints were device failure, generator/lead replacement, induced arrhythmia, loss of capture, or electrical reset. Secondary endpoints were clinically-relevant device parameter changes. No limits were placed on the number of repeat scans performed
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  • Magnasafe Re