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2012

Pyongyang, 2012

DPR KOREAS SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION ON

CLIMATE CHANGE

DPR Koreas Second National Communication on Climate Change 1

DPR Koreas Second National Communication on Climate Change Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

This National Communication has been prepared within the Project Enabling Activity for the Preparation of the Second National Communication of Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea

to the UNFCCC executed by the NCCE and UNEP, with financial support of the GEF.

Coordinators: JONG Myong Hak, National Focal Point for the UNFCCC, NCCE George Manful, Senior Task Manager, Climate Change Enabling Activities, UNEP

Project Staff: CHONG Jin Chang, National Project Coordinator CHOE Kwang Hun, Administrative Assistant

Authors: KIM Hun, Project Management Group CHOE Song Chol, GHG Inventory Group

KIM Kwang Ju, Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Group KWAK Man Su, Mitigation Analysis Group KIM Kwang Phil, Education, Training and Public Awareness Group SONG Yong Chol, Research and Systematic Observation Group KIM Hak Chol, Environmentally Sound Technologies Group

Editor: KIM Hun Translators SIN Hyok Chol, KIM Hun, CHOE Song Chol, KWAK Man Su

DPR Koreas Second National Communication on Climate Change, National Coordinating Committee for Environment, Pyongyang, 2012, 161p

ISBN

National Coordinating Committee for Environment P.O. Box 44 Pyongyang Jungsong-Dong, Central District, Pyongyang City Email: Mr. RI Hung Sik (ujchoe@unicef.org) Tel: (850-2) 18111 ext. 381 8370 Fax: (850-2) 381 4660

United Nations Environment Programme P.O. Box 30552 Nairobi, Kenya Email: George.Manful@unep.org Tel: 254-20-7623489 Fax: 254-20-624041/623162

National Coordinating Committee for Environment (NCCE)

This publication may be reproduced in whole or part in any form for education or non-profit use, without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source

is made.

CONTRIBUTORS 2

CONTRIBUTORS

State Commission of Science and Technology

CHOE Kwang Hun, HONG Chol Jun, JANG Chol Ung

State Planning Commission

RI Son Sin

State Academy of Sciences

HONG Ryun Gi, KIM Ul Song

Institute of Thermal Engineering, State Academy of Sciences

CHONG Jin Chang, KIM Hun, CHOE Song Chol, KWAK Man Su, HAM Chol Ho, RI Myong Jin, KIM Hak Chol, KIM Chol Min, CHOE Jong Gil

Institute of Global Environment Information, State Academy of Sciences

CHOE Kwang Su, SONG Hak Chol, PAK Chang Il, KIM Kwang Chol

Institute of Science and Technology Development Issues, State Academy of Sciences

KIM Yong Guk, KIM Jong Ho, SIN Jung Min

Ministry of Land and Environment Protection

KIM Kwang Ju, KIM Kwang Phil,

CHO Song Ryong

Institute of Forest Management, Ministry of Land and Environment Protection

HO Man Sok, KIM Chol Hun, RI Yong Sik

Forest Information Centre, Ministry of Land and Environment Protection

AN Chol Ho

Ministry of Metal Industry

SONG Kwang Il

Institute of Climate, State Hydro Meteorological Administration

CHONG Song Chun, SONG Yong Chol, CHOE Bong Chol

Ministry of Agriculture

PAK In Ho

Agricultural Technique Information Centre, Academy of Agricultural Sciences

PAK Jae Su, KIM Yang Il

Ministry of City Management

CHOE Jae Hun

Ministry of Foreign Trade

KIM Su Hong

Ministry of Public Health

CHOE Bok Nam

Ministry of Electricity Industry

CHOE Chol Ho, RI Sin Hyok

Korean General Federation of Science and Technology

CHONG Kum San

Korean Nature Conservation Union

KIM Gyong Sun

Central Bureau of Statistics

CHANG Gyong Suk, KIM Chang Bom

Ministry of Chemical Industry

HAN Yong Hui

Environment and Development Centre

HAN Jun Chol, RI Kang Ho

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The National Coordinating Committee for Environment (NCCE) is grateful to everybody who rendered support and contributed to the preparation of the Second National Communication (SNC), including UNEP/GEF, State Commission of Science and Technology, State Academy of Sciences, Ministry of Land and Environment Protection, State Hydro Meteorological Administration.

And, the NCCE would like to express deep appreciation to the main authors of the SNC for their valuable work and perseverance.

In addition, the NCCE would like to thank the officials and experts of the Ministry of Land and Environment Protection, Central Bureau of Statistics, Institution of Thermal Engineering, State Academy of Sciences that provided their invaluable comments and useful information in reviewing and completing the SNC.

Furthermore, the NCCE thanks all who have been directly or indirectly engaged in the SNC progress.

Finally, special thanks go to Mr. George Manful, Senior Task Manager, Climate Change Enabling Activities, UNEP for devoting useful efforts to the coordination of the SNC Project.

FOREWORD 4

FOREWORD

The Government of Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPR Korea) always paid great attention to the environment protection work in building up the man-centered socialism of our own style.

The great leader comrade KIM Jong Il said:

To provide more favorable natural environment for the existence and activities of human beings by conducting sound environment protection work is the intrinsic demand of the man-centered socialism of our own style.

DPR Korea signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development in June 1992, and ratified it on December 5, 1994. The UNFCCC has been entered into force for DPR Korea on March 5, 1995.

The Government of DPR Korea has designated the National Coordinating Committee for Environment (NCCE) as the National Focal Point of the UNFCCC. The NCCE has started the implementation of the project for preparation of the Second National Communication (SNC) under financial support of the UNEP/GEF since April 2006 and has completed the SNC in close cooperation with experts and officials from concerned ministries, academic and research institutes.

In comparison with the DPR Koreas First National Communication submitted to the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in September 2002, the SNC contains new information on the national greenhouse gas inventory for the period 1990-2002, vulnerability and adaptation assessment for key socio-economic sectors, analysis of mitigation options and other information related to the achievement of the objectives of the UNFCCC, as well as constraints, gaps, related financial, technical and capacity needs.

The national greenhouse gas inventory includes many sources of emissions and removals that were not included in the First National Communication.

I am confident that the SNC will be an essential document that addresses serious climate change issues and provides the potential to attract financial resources to support the implementation of the UNFCCC, thus contributing to the DPR Korea's sustainable development.

DPR Korea will make continued efforts to fulfill obligations under the UNFCCC including the presentation of the DPR Koreas national communications on a continuous basis with a view to protect our planet from the ravages of climate change for new generations to come, keeping in close relationships with all relevant international agencies.

RI Hung Sik

Secretary-General

National Coordinating Committee for Environment, DPR Korea

CONTENTS 5

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................ 3

FOREWORD .................................................................................................................................. 4

ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................................ 12

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................... 15

S1 National Circumstances ................................................................................................ 16 S2 National Greenhouse Gas Inventory ................................................................................ 17 S3 Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Measures .......................................................... 18 S4 Climate Change Mitigation Steps and Measures .............................................................. 20 S5 Other Information ......................................................................................................... 22 S6 Constraints, Gaps and Needs ........................................................................................ 23

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 26

CHAPTER 2 NATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES ........................................................................ 29

2.1 State Apparatus and Development Priorities ................................................................ 30 2.1.1 State apparatus ..................................................................................................... 30 2.1.2 Development priorities ............