DOCUMENT RESUME AUTHOR Shipman, Vi. TITLE DOCUMENT RESUME. Shipman, Vi. Disadvantag. Experiences.
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ginia C.; And Others' . .,' d Children and Their First School . ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study:, d Devefopment of Cognitive Competencies
-and Styles. Prior to School Entry. .
Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J. Office of Child Developmgnt, (DHEW), Washington,
ETS-PR-71-19 Dec 71 265p.
EDRS PRICE MF-$0.65 HC-$9.87 DESCRIPTORS *Cognitive Development; *Data Collection;
*Disadvantaged Youth; *Educational Experience; Evaluation Methods; Item Analysis; *Longitudinal Studies; Preschool Childrbn; Research Methodology
IDENTIFIERS *Project Head Start
.ABSTRACT . In a continuing description of a Head Start
longitudinal study, analyses are presented of the interrelationships among individual measures of the childls.performances prior to school. entry, accompanied by brief descriptions of the tasks and the, scores used. Despite the size and extensiveness of the data base, the findings are considered tentative until further data is colleCted on socio-cultural determinants,- 'developmental trends, and other interrelationships. This report describes the interrelationships among_ certain cognitive,-perceptual, and personal-social behaviors of the children, age 4, in the first year of the study as assessed by the initial':test battery., Chapters of the, report include characterisics-df the sample4,,methcdology, results and discussion, and conclusiOns. Structural analyses of he Year 1 child test data yielded 1) a general ability dimension information-processing skills), cutting across contents and operations sampled in the cognitive test battery', and 2) a stylistic response tempo dimension. Descriptions of each of the individual child measures are presented in the appendices, which comprise about half the report. (LH)
AND FIRST SCHOOL EXPERIENCES
ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study
Structure and Development-of Cognitive
Competencies and Styles Prior to School Entry
Virginia C. -Shipman
in collaboration with John Barone Albert Beaton Walter Effirnerich William Ward
December 1971 EDUCATIONAL TESTING SERVICE PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY
DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN AND THEIR FIRST SCHOOL EXPERIENCES
-ETS-Head Start Longitudinal Study o.
. Structure and Development of Cognitive
Competencies and Styles Prior to School Entry
Virginia C. Shipman
Grant Number H-8256
Prepared for: Project Head Start Office.of Child DevelOpment U. S. Department of Health,' ,Education and. Welfare
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Introduction 1
2. Characteristics- of the Sample 6
3. Methodology 45
4.- Results. and Discussion 0 67
5. --Conclusions 106
A. Statistical Proc2dures 119..
B. Task Descript.)ons 127
C. Supplementary Results 241
k D. Project.Personnel 249
This is the sixth report describing the progress of the Longitudinal Study
conducted under Contract 0E0 4206 and Grants H -8256 and CG-8256. The first
report (PR-68-4) discussed theoretical considerations and measurement strategies
proposed for the study of disadvantaged children and their first school exper=
iences.. The second (PR-69-12) and third (PR-70=2) reports described 'operations
during the first two years of the study.. In 1969 mothers were interviewed qnd
children tested, prior .to their enrollment in Head Start or any other preschool
. program;- in 1969-70 these measures were:repeated and extensive observation of
'.those-children attending preschool programs in Portland, St. Louis. and Trenton
took place. In Lee County, where Head Snort is a kindergarten level program,
a brief version of the test battery was administered. The fourth report (PR-
70-20) gave a detailed description of the initial longitudinal sample in Port-
land, St. Louis and Trenton, prior to enrollment in-school. It was based on
the first analyses of 16 of the 33 instruments administered during 1969,
including a parent interview and medical examination designed to elicit infor-
mation about family and environmental characteristics; The fifth report (PR-.
71-20) dealt with the structure' and development of personal-social behaviors .,.
in preschool settings in Portland, St. Louis, and Trenton.
The present report continues the description of the initial sample, incor=
porating data from Lee County and what. is now known about the child"s enrollment
e in Head Start or other preschool programs. The major focus of this- report,
however, is to present the first analyses of the interrelation-,..ips among
individual measures of. the child's performances prior to school entry, accomp- '
anied by brief descriptions of the tasks and the scores used. Despite the size
and extensiveness . of the data base, such, findings must nevertheless 'be
considered tentative; important clues . to interpretability await' the relating
of these data to socio-cultural determinante, developmentaerends, and t
interrelationships that may become increasingly apparent with measurements
in subsequent' years.
This report,a'description of the initial child test findings, is the
product not only of the current, project staff (spe Appendix D) but also -.
of many other contributors at Educational Testing ServiceMand thcl study
For. -hpr able leadership during .the difficult. early years of the pro-
ject, primary recognition is here acknoWledged Scarvia B. Anderson. Also, S
the guidance and direction given to the study by the initial Steering Com-
mittee, Samuel J. Messick (Chairman), ,Albert E. Beaton, Walter Emmerich,
Edmund W. Gordon, Winton H. ManningMarshall P. Smith, Silvan S. Tompkins,
and Melvin .Tumin is due special recogr\tion. Their !questiOns, ideas, and
\ constructive criticisms 'contributed greatly to both the form and substance
01 the' study.
Special thanks are due the former Local Coordinators: Mrs. Lida
Campbell, Lee County, Alabama; Mrs. Verna Shepherd, Portland, Oregon:' Mr.
Ronald Greeley and ,
Mr. Bobby Westbrooks, St. Louis, Missouri; and Mr. Con
rad McLean, Trenton,, New Jersey. All contributed knowledgt of their
communities and varied technical and administrative-skills that wer
invaluable for organizing and coordinating testing activities n the field.
I owe gratitude as well to the many testers, test center and playroom r.
supervisors, and drivers, without whose effortsdata could not have been
collected., Their hard work, enthusiasm, and-patiencemere a continuing
source of encouragement to those of us who knew the frustrations they . .
experienced working within a complex organizational st..ucture that was not
alWays geared.to their needs. In addition to the valuable program and field
coordination provided by''.Joseph Boyd and.Samuel Barnett, a large debt must be
acknowledged to the tester trainers: Anne .juSsis, Rosalea Courtney, Diran
Dermen, Martha Friendly, ,Karla Goldman, Sandra Landes, Jean Orost, Masako Tanaka, . , .
Phyllis Ward, William Ward, and Patricia Warren, who spent many hours traveling
to and from the test centers. Without their'ability and willingness to function.
in a variety of roles, and most of all, without their patience and humor, the
study could not have progressed through its initial trying stages. Gratitude
must also be expressed for the monitoring and field consultation provided by
ETS.Regional Office staff:. Junius Davis (Tkoderick Ironside, Chandra Mehotra,
Daniel Norton, Santelia Knight, Robert LaMbert and George.Temp.
For measurement and analysis coordination during the initial year, parti7
cular thanks must go to John Barone-, Ruth Ekstrom, Richard J. Marta and Victor
Wichert; and thanks are due the women who painstakinglycOded.all the data
presented here udder the able supervision of Joan:Tyson. The continuing 'su)port
provided by the ETS administration, particularly the administrative staff of
the Developmental Research. Division, has been especially impnrrAnt for the
The study has also benefited Featly from the constructive criticirti and
support provided by the Office of Child Development, particularly the Head -
Start Evaluation Research staff in-Washington and the Head Start Research
Advisory Committee. Appreciation for their counsel and understanding is here
expressed to Dr. Lois-ellin Datta, Mr. Richard Orton and Dr. Edward Ziiler of
the Offic.e of Child.Development, to Dr. John McDavid, former Director of ilead
Start Research and Evaluation, and to Dr. Urie Bronfenbrenner,-Dr. Boyd
McCandless, Dr. Alfred Yankauer and the late