dizertační práce

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  • Vysok kola ekonomick v Praze

    Fakulta podnikohospodsk

    Obor: Podnikov ekonomika a management

    Specializace: Management

    Doktorsk disertan prce:

    zen lidskch zdroj v malch a

    stednch podnicch

    Vypracovala: Ing. Lucie Vclavkov

    Vedouc disertan prce: prof. Ing. Zuzana Dvokov, CSc.

    Praha, 2009

  • Prohlen

    Prohlauji, e disertan prci na tma zen lidskch zdroj

    v malch a stednch podnicch jsem vypracovala samostatn.

    Pouitou literaturu a podkladov materily uvdm v piloenm

    seznamu literatury.

    V Praze, dne 28. srpna 2009

  • Podkovn

    M podkovn pat vedouc m doktorsk disertan prce

    prof. Ing. Zuzan Dvokov, CSc. za jej vstcn pstup

    a cenn rady.

    Dle musm podkovat mmu manelovi,

    bez jeho podpory bych prci nikdy nedokonila.

  • 4

    Osnova

    1 vod .......................................................................................................................8

    1.1 Formulace vdeckho problmu.....................................................................9

    1.2 Cle disertan prce .....................................................................................11

    1.3 Pouit metody .............................................................................................12

    1.4 Struktura disertan prce .............................................................................13

    2 Charakteristika malch a stednch podnik ........................................................15

    2.1 Vymezen malch a stednch podnik ........................................................15

    2.1.1 Kvalitativn vymezen...............................................................................16

    2.1.2 Kvantitativn vymezen ............................................................................17

    2.1.2.1 Vymezen MSP v USA ......................................................................17

    2.1.2.2 Vymezen MSP v Evropsk unii ........................................................18

    2.1.2.3 Vymezen MSP v R.........................................................................20

    2.2 Postaven malch a stednch podnik v ekonomice....................................22

    2.2.1 Situace v zemch OECD a EU..................................................................22

    2.2.2 Situace v R .............................................................................................25

    2.3 Vznam malch a stednch podnik ...........................................................30

    2.3.1 Spoleensk a politick vznam ..............................................................30

    2.3.2 Konkurenn a nabdkov funkce .............................................................31

    2.3.3 Strukturln a konjunkturln funkce........................................................32

    2.3.4 Zamstnavatelsk funkce..........................................................................32

    2.3.5 Rstov a inovan funkce........................................................................33

    2.4 Mal a stedn podniky versus velk podniky ..............................................33

    2.5 Faktory spchu a piny nespchu malch a stednch podnik .............35

    2.5.1 Faktory spchu malch a stednch podnik ..........................................35

    2.5.2 Problmy malch a stednch podnik .....................................................38

    2.5.3 Piny nespchu malch a stednch podnik .......................................40

    2.6 Shrnut ..........................................................................................................42

    3 Lidsk zdroje v malch a stednch podnicch .....................................................43

    3.1 Podnikatel ...................................................................................................43

    3.1.1 Vymezen podnikatele a rozen podnikatelsk aktivity........................43

    3.1.2 Faktory ovlivujc vstup do podnikn....................................................45

  • 5

    3.1.3 Osobnostn a dal individuln charakteristiky podnikatele...................48

    3.1.4 Podnikatel jako barira rstu i pina nespchu ..................................52

    3.2 eny v podnikn ..........................................................................................53

    3.2.1 Motivace vstupu do podnikn .................................................................54

    3.2.2 Dal specifick rysy podnikatelek ...........................................................55

    3.2.3 Problmy podnikatelek.............................................................................58

    3.2.4 Cesta k dosaen spchu .........................................................................58

    3.3 Pracovnci .....................................................................................................59

    3.3.1 Charakteristika pracovnk malch a stednch podnik .........................59

    3.3.2 Problmy souvisejc s pracovnky malch a stednch podnik..............61

    3.4 Rodinn podnik ............................................................................................62

    3.4.1 Vymezen rodinnho podniku a jeho podstata .........................................63

    3.4.2 Siln a slab strnky rodinnch podnik ..................................................64

    3.4.3 Nstroje k een problm a cesta k spchu rodinnch podnik...........66

    3.5 Shrnut ..........................................................................................................67

    4 zen lidskch zdroj v malch a stednch podnicch.......................................69

    4.1 Vvoj pojet personln prce.......................................................................69

    4.2 Vznam zen lidskch zdroj pro mal a stedn podniky.........................73

    4.3 Pstupy k zen lidskch zdroj v malch a stednch podnicch ...............75

    4.4 Organizace personln prce v malch a stednch podnicch......................78

    4.5 Charakteristika vybranch personlnch innost v malch a stednch

    podnicch ......................................................................................................82

    4.5.1 Strategie a plnovn lidskch zdroj.......................................................83

    4.5.2 Vytven a analza pracovnch mst........................................................85

    4.5.3 Zskvn, vbr, pijmn a orientace pracovnk .................................86

    4.5.4 Vzdlvn pracovnk ............................................................................89

    4.5.5 Hodnocen pracovnk..............................................................................92

    4.5.6 Odmovn pracovnk ..........................................................................94

    4.6 Kvalita pracovnho ivota v malch a stednch podnicch..........................96

    4.7 Flexibilita prce v malch a stednch podnicch .........................................99

    4.8 Shrnut ........................................................................................................102

    5 Empirick vzkum .............................................................................................103

    5.1 Metodologie empirickho vzkumu...........................................................103

    5.1.1 Pedmt a cle vzkumu .........................................................................103

  • 6

    5.1.2 Predikativn model..................................................................................104

    5.1.3 Stanoven hypotz ..................................................................................105

    5.1.4 Vymezen pojm a ukazatel .................................................................107

    5.1.5 Pouit techniky primrnho vzkumu (zjiovn dat) .........................108

    5.1.5.1 Dotaznkov eten..........................................................................109

    5.1.5.2 Ppadov studie...............................................................................114

    5.2 Vsledky dotaznkovho eten.................................................................116

    5.2.1 Charakteristika respondent ...................................................................116

    5.2.2 Organizace personln prce v podniku..................................................120

    5.2.2.1 Personln tvar/funkce personalisty ...............................................120

    5.2.2.2 Zabezpeen jednotlivch personlnch innost .............................122

    5.2.3 Charakteristika vybranch personlnch innost...................................124

    5.2.3.1 Vytven strategie zen lidskch zdroj .......................................124

    5.2.3.2 Vytven popis pracovnch mst ...................................................125

    5.2.3.3 Zskvn pracovnk .......................................................................126

    5.2.3.4 Vbr pracovnk.............................................................................128

    5.2.3.5 Hodnocen pracovnk .....................................................................130

    5.2.3.6 Vzdlvn pracovnk ....................................................................133

    5.2.3.7 Odmovn pracovnk ..................................................................135

    5.2.3.8 Zamstnaneck vhody....................................................................137

    5.2.3.9 Ostatn stimulan prostedky ..........................................................138

    5.2.4 Flexibiln formy prce ...........................................................................