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  • Diversity in Engineering Managing the Workforce of the Future NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.
  • NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This workshop was supported by Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER76080 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Energy, with additional support from the Dow Chemical Com- pany Foundation, the Motorola Foundation, the GE Fund, DuPont Engineering, and the National Academy of Engineering. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-08429-6 Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Lockbox 285 Washington, DC 20055 (800) 624-6242 (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2002 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
  • The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the fur- therance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibil- ity given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academys purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scien- tific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.
  • COMMITTEE ON DIVERSITY IN THE ENGINEERING WORKFORCE Cordell Reed, chair, Senior Vice President (retired), Commonwealth Edison Company Sandra Begay-Campbell, Senior Member of Technical Staff, Sandia National Laboratories Suzanne Brainard, Director, Center for Workforce Development, University of Washington Daryl Chubin, Senior Vice President, Policy and Research, National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering Jose B. Cruz, Jr., Howard D. Winbigler Chair and Professor of Electrical Engineering, Ohio State University William Friend, Executive Vice President and Director (retired), Bechtel Group, Inc. Suzanne Jenniches, Vice President of Communications Systems, Northrop- Grumman Corporation Cathy Lasser, Vice President B2B Initiatives, IBM Corporation Benjamin Montoya, President and CEO (retired), Public Service Company of New Mexico David M. Porter, Jr., Assistant Professor of Human Resources and Organizational Behavior, Anderson Graduate School of Management, University of California-Los Angeles James West, Senior Research Scientist, Bell Laboratories NAE Staff Peggy Layne, NAE Fellow and Program Officer Nathan Kahl, Senior Project Assistant Katie Gramling, Research Assistant Proctor Reid, Associate Director, Program Office Carol R. Arenberg, Managing Editor v
  • Preface vii Proportionately fewer women and underrepresented minorities are found in the engineering profession than in the U.S. workforce in general and in all other scientific or technical fields. As Wm. A. Wulf, president of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), has noted, for the United States to remain competitive in a global technological society, the country as a whole must take serious steps to ensure that we have a diverse, well trained, multicultural workforce. To further that goal, the NAE established the Program on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce, which leads the NAEs efforts to increase diversity in the U.S. engi- neering workforce, by bringing together stakeholders from industry, government, academia, and nonprofit organizations to share their knowledge, identify needs, and discuss ways to address those needs. As first steps towards addressing this issue, the NAE convened the Summit on Women in Engineering in May 1999, developed the Celebration of Women in Engineering web site (www.nae.edu/cwe), and convened a workshop to de- velop a business case for diversity in September 1999. The Committee on Diver- sity in the Engineering Workforce was established in November 1999, followed by the Forum on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce in January 2000. The workshop, Best Practices in Managing Diversity, is the latest in the NAEs ongoing efforts to increase diversity in engineering. The workshop brought together leaders of corporations that have been recog- nized for outstanding diversity programs and members of the NAE Committee and the NAE Forum on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce. Many thanks to the members of the committee and forum for their assistance in identifying and recruiting workshop speakers and participants and facilitating and reporting on breakout discussions.
  • viii PREFACE The papers in this volume represent the authors views as presented at the workshop. The questions and answers and summaries of the breakout discussions were taken from a transcript of the workshop. The participants did not attempt to provide any formal conclusions or recommendations, focusing instead on collect- ing information and informing the discussion of the issues.
  • Contents ix Executive Summary 1 Introduction 6 Cordell Reed The Importance of Diversity in Engineering 8 Wm. A. Wulf BEST PRACTICES IN MANAGING DIVERSITY: A PANEL DISCUSSION Introduction 17 Mary C. Mattis Diversity Practices at CH2M HILL 20 Daniel E. Arvizu Diversity Practices at Motorola 24 Iwona Turlik Diversity Practices at Consolidated Edison 30 Richard P. Cowie Question and Answer Session 33 SUMMARIES OF MORNING BREAKOUT SESSIONS Recruitment, Retention, Advancement: What Works? 41
  • x CONTENTS VOICES FROM THE FIELD: A PANEL DISCUSSION National Society of Black Engineers 51 Michele Lezama Society of Women Engineers 56 Shelley A.M. Wolff Society of Hispanic Professional Engineers 59 Orlando A. Gutierrez American Indian Science and Engineering Society 61 Sandra Begay-Campbell Question and Answer Session 65 AFTERNOON KEYNOTE ADDRESS Advancing Minorities in Science and Engineering Careers 71 Willie Pearson, Jr. AFTERNOON PRESENTATIONS AND SUMMARIES OF BREAKOUT SESSIONS Affirmative Action Backlash 79 Tyrone D. Taborn A Case Study of the Texaco Lawsuit 85 Thomas S. Williamson, Jr. Diversity in the Global Marketplace 92 Lisa Nungesser Mentoring 99 Janet M. Graham and Sarah Ann Kerr MORNING KEYNOTE ADDRESS Implementing Change 105 Nicholas Donofrio SUMMARIES OF FINAL BREAKOUT SESSIONS Where Do We Go from Here? 117 CLOSING ADDRESS The Business Case for Diversity 125 James J. Padilla
  • CONTENTS xi APPENDIXES A: Workshop Participants 137 B: Biographical Sketches of Workshop Speakers 142 C: Corporate Benchmarks 149
  • 1 Executive Summary On October 29 and 30, 2001, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Committee on Diversity in the Engineering Workforce brought together repre- sentatives of corporations that have been recognized for their successful diver- sity programs and members of the NAE Forum on Diversity to participate in a workshop entitled Best Practices in Managing Diversity. T