Distributive Justice, Equity and Equality

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    A. Rev Sool 1983 :217-41Cpyright b nul ws Ic ll ghts sd

    DISTRIBUTIVE JUSTICE,

    QIY AN QUALIY

    Kn S. Cook n Kn A Hg

    Department of Sociology, niversity o Washnton att, Wahngton 815

    A

    hs c vd gn vw t c cndctd v t two decades on individas' onepions of eqiy and dsibive jse and ci t inqit Vaos heoea omaons ae dented and

    mpotant opis o hec dvmnt nd mic nvtig

    ion are disssed. In onson, he ahos gg ha mo-eve oneps dbtv jtc v ctn mttn Cnidtn m maoeve oneps sggests ossibes o egaing qt and disbe

    jse heoes with soiooia heoies o powe, on, ad ctvctin Ti intgtin aheed wold bn noons o juse o heoeron n he anass o soia cng

    NTODTON

    Dng a een gh he is aho o his hape was neped by he maepasene on he h wh he predabe ueson "Wha ae ou woknon? Te m wing n c n jt T wc t nmnemphaay esponded, "Thee is no jsie! ha w indd t ct wd n nd t viw ct Bt jtic bn tic ntt c cntt nd dcd ndxdhe amon o maea wen on hs sbje wod moe han key isevea ooms hs we ms m sope

    Hee we os pon he spei esea radon dened n he eay1960 dbv jtc Hmn 1961 qt dm65 Ti gmtc dcn d nt ct n t mt vntmatea pshed in phosoph and othe soa cnc xcdd m

    27

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    Annu.Rev.Sociol.1983.9:217-241.D

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    18 OOK & HEGED

    csera er. Wa e eal ca be bae by rea severalrece collecios see Berkoi Walser 197 Mikula 190a Leer Leer 191 reeberg & Coe 12 Messic o 193

    All socal systems evolve mechansms for dstbt valed resorces ando allcag rg, repsbles c a bure Tees ibuve jsce specy e cs er c parcar srbs aore ecely, sbuoal prcedres are perceve t be just or far. Is caper e escrbe varous cocepos of usice cly fou i esocial sciece literate ad evie the resech that has bee condcted idvduals allca prefereces a eir reacis ieuitable allcaos I te cclud seco e ve bey "cr ccep stce t re "acr justce cces

    CONCEIONS OF USICE

    Disinct ypes of justice priciples can be ideified in the scial scecelerare. We rs ss beee ey ad srbve jusce Tefmr volvs noos of exchae ad he laer coces eeral faiess iallcai siais Te ers ee isc ypes f jusice cncludns sec e se Eckoffs 1974 fve pcples f equaly dcae o

    mst existin cncepios of utice fi thi a mre enera hereticalfraer We se te erms jusce priciples ad disrbi ulestercageably dfferet dsrbuto les e cdfcaons of dfferedelyg piciples jstice

    Equi: Fair xchnge

    s cooplace i scial psycloy to cceive of isibuive usice oreiy as isses a ase eever to r more persos exchane valedresrces be ey gs, servces, ey, love or aeco Th concept has

    s s early excage heoreic formulais prpse by Aas 196as 1961 a Blau 19 cages beee acrs ivlve emually enecal ranser o vale resurces I e sples case vlvto acors (A and B enaed n the exchae of valued resurces x ady e resce A prvies e:g. is bo acr As ip t the echae adacor B's otcme the resorce B provdes eg y is Bs put and A's otcmee Cook & Eerso 1978

    Wii cae fraerk euiy s ypicaly efie as e equvalece f he oce/pu ratos Adams 195 Walster et al 197 f al

    paries ivolve i e excae. We tese ios re ot equa equity issaid to exst This "rati concept is the mos comoly cted efinton ofeuity despte csderable ebae ver te prper euty frula see Haris1976 Moscheti 1979 Alesio 1980 Recet evidece eve suests that a

    Annu

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    DRBV 9

    lnear model is more appropriate han the rao mod fo eprstig individuals' equit judgmes (Haris 1980 983

    Dstrbtv Jt r AllanWhe many oca ituato ca be coneived in exchage ers, afamewok oe no encomass a situations in which jstice is a coc.Eckhoff 194 maes a useu distinction between the mutuay bficia,wo-way rar o valu eouc . xchag as rcipoaton) and heoeway dbuo of eouce aco a cagoy o "circe of cp{ aocao)2

    Fo ou proe aocao occu whe an aocato distbtes audwa eouc ight obigao ec 3 o a aay of cpie

    Whhe h cpe a oe a d chage ao with thedibuo o dely wh eah oh a oay aayca dticiouhrmore may uao he o pe omb(Eckho 94. 4

    Procedral Jtice Far Procedre

    Papa i echag ad aoao ao auae he fa of heha o pocedu oe. Th ga op ony yeahed ha b cad "pdu ju (ee hbau ake 95Leha a 190

    Depi wha mgh be pced a a fa o u buo of ooe hpou by whch h dibuo w arrid a may b def a uu oa. Coee what paicipants conside a fa a uad peu (eg awg o mgh he eu a ibuo of oucomeha ome woud def a iquabe o unju hu bue ju adpocedua juce pee d yp of jutic judgm

    Eckhoff ditinguhe evera ypes o ecpcy nvovng he ane a w negavevalue esuces ( ; () a posvel vaued esce owed by a negavey vaued one(+ ; (c) a negavey vaued esouce wed by pve vale one ; and wpve vaued esouces , +). The anse psvey vaued esouce ) s denedas exchange.

    2Aocaon iuaon ae someme conceived a nance "indiec exchage (ee Backnd Wen

    3The distuton of egtvey ved otcomes pnshen bes or nes s dst he aa psve vaued esuces and s dscussed oe u e sen nb bow

    40he nveigao ( Cohen 1979 Levenha a 980) es he dncion eweenexchnge nd aocan Chen 99 o expe dsngushes beween a ndvdua desev-ng, whh cuse n eves o esevng deve o he opason o exges an dstbtve jse w cnss pncpe govg oons nd vlton oexsn dsbo

    Annu.Rev.Sociol.1983.9:217-241.D

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    220 & HEGED

    iui Jui Ju i

    Fnally, n what s oten conceved as a entrely separate set of socal stuatons actors ae sometmes conceed wth the aess o the allocation opunshments (.e. dos the punshent t the cime?) or o the level ocompensaton or vctmzaton (eg. victm compensaton laws, amativeacton polcies, and the lke; see Macaulay & Walster 1971 Blacstone &Hesle 197 Deste oan & mles (98) ecent cla that etbutonnot distibuton s the most undamental prncple o ocal le, nl ecentlyhave equty/justce theoists begun to explore ths class o conces empricallyeg t et al 976 alton Rytna 198) Accordng to ogan Emle (9:130) althouh "ustcalways contans a postv and a negatve side, as reected n the tems distibutive ustce and reibutve ustice,sycholosts have ocused almost eclusvely on the ostve side-n alocatng and ecanging benets on a ust basis.

    Justice: Prncples of Equal

    A eea aoach to ustice that easily ncooates euity an distbutveustice and that provdes ndrecl ed nd ebuve ustce is thet ultple t e dtbt les Whle many socalscentsts (e.g Resche 966 eutsc 975 Leventhal 976a,b) have advo

    cated hs aroach ehas the most sytematC eot s that o cho (974e dentes ve dstnct princples o eualty that ae apled dung allocaton. 5 (change can be dened as a secial class o allocation in which thedstbuton mechasm s the tww te bee Tbe 1esents cho's t jte pncple

    Whn ths mwk m db le can be conceved a eualtyncles The "eualty le tadtonaly eered to n the ustce lteature(e. eual amounts to each reciient co "bv qulty. he"quty rle also labele the "onributons le (e equalty o outome

    nput t or equalty elatve to ndvdual tbt) Ekpncple of elatve equalty he needs ul (Schwaz 97, 977 (i.eualty o outcomes tang nto account need andor deer) s classed byEckho as a ncple o "subective eualty

    he ncple an ode equalty s ond n omans ale wo(98 604 I the t o nvestments o the membes o one grop ae hgherthan t t dstbutve ustce qu w hould bhgher, oo e reers to ths as a condton o eulbrum because t s a

    Phsphcal samns ha jusc s n th am a ulty (g Luc 98 d ncmpt cntact Eckhff's psn Ths phsphca statmns gnra r bjc-tvly ua amuns nl n f th ua prncpls dntfd b ch

    6In sac cmpan bc an at quaty ths tw pncps a tpca abt aty an cnbuns rs rscty s vnha 1976a.b; Shn 1980)

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    TRBUT JUT 221

    Pncples of equalty apped to aloation

    Wha o

    eul

    Ea amonto h

    (objee euay)

    uevey

    3. eaveeqay

    qy

    4 an odeeuay

    lopony

    Need

    x

    x

    Reevn haa o repenFe De Sa oo No

    x

    x

    x x

    x x

    codto of fet tce (ee ook Pace 977) Th cocept ao thebai for erger et a 192 1983 atuvaue theor o dtrbutve utcehch foate the pobem i tatcotec te Noave epectatio emerg i au iuaio coceg he pper or ju aocaio ofreard robem o diibuive iuice are i uch ituato he theacta aocao of ead ot e th thee oatve epectatio

    a of opportut the ih prcpe deified b Echoff i acompex cocepto of tce dict to app Thi dffct derive pafom the heret mpty th tm "pptty ad o th hioicaaecedet of ea Ma ie of dributive uce have ae thecotet of afiave aco ad raca iegrao poicie ad hu overapth oto of retrbtve or compeator ice

    ckhoff tpoo eabe to caf tce picpe to to boad

    categore a hoe hat deped po the characterc o recpe (Tabe pcipe 2 3 ad 4) ad thoe that do ot (ppe 1 ad 5 Recetrcma e 9) have a mar dicio icma cae hepcipe ha deped upo recipie characeric a microuice picpe thoe that pecif the atre of the otcome ditibto ithot efeece to recipiet characertic ae cafed a macoutce pcipe9

    7He also ees to ths as a ondon o "status onguene. Coneng he etonhpwen dve ue and as onuene Homan (1974:26) onde ehap heea no o dve ; pehap away ome xed wh ome a aey

    8Fo eampe, Jenk () onde om h aemen o hoon opporun nAmea ha eaz o of oo ym ney o have mhee on