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    Diseases of Chickpea, Lentil, Pigeon Pea, and Tepary Bean in Continental United States andPuerto RicoAuthor(s): Walter J. KaiserSource: Economic Botany, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1981), pp. 300-320Published by: Springer on behalf of New York Botanical Garden PressStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4254300

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    Diseases of Chickpea, Lentil, Pigeon Pea,and Tepary Bean in Continental UnitedStates and Puerto Rico1WALTERJ. KAISER2

    The Leguminosae (pea or bean family)are composed of some 690 generaand18,000 species (Purseglove, 1968).It is the second largestfamily of seed plants(followingthe Gramineae) Aykroydand Doughty, 1964).Within the Legumino-sae, thereare 18-20 species thatare cultivatedwidely for their edible seeds whichare high in protein (17-25+%) (Aykroyd and Doughty, 1964).The seeds of le-gumesaresecondonly to cereals as the most important ource of food for humansand animals(NationalAcademy of Sciences, 1979).The term food legumegenerallyis given to species of Leguminosae,the seeds,pods, and/or leaves of which are eaten by humans. The word pulse is used insome countries colonizedby GreatBritain, ike IndiaandPakistan,to denote thedry, matureseeds which are consumedby humans.A chronic proteindeficiency exists in most developingcountries of the world(Mayer, 1976).In these countries food legumes usually providethe main, and attimes the only, source of proteinand essential aminoacids in the diets of poorerinhabitants or social, economic, or religiousreasons. Legumesare an importantcomplementto diets heavily dependenton high carbohydrate oods (cerealsandroot and tubercrops) (NationalAcademyof Sciences, 1979).

    In the United States and its territories,several food legumes are grown on acommercial scale. After soybean [Glycinemax (L.) Merr.]and peanut (Arachishypogaea L.) (which are also classified as oil crops), bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL.) is the most important ood legume cultivated in the United States (USDA,1979a). The seeds of some food legumes, like bean, pea (Pisum sativum L.),soybean, and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)are exported in large quantitiesandaid in correctingthe nation's sizeable balance of trade deficits (USDA, 1979a).In most developed countries of the world, with the exception of Japan, foodlegumes are consumedin smallamounts, and, therefore,contributeminimally osatisfying daily protein requirements.Protein from animalsources satisfies mostof that need, but this is a very inefficientmethod of producingprotein (Mayer,1976).With the recent dramaticrise in the cost of energy and nitrogenous ertil-izers, a searchwill be made to findcheaper,energy-savingmethods of increasingfood production.Food legumes will undoubtedly assume a more importantrolein providinga largershare of the proteinrequirementsof the inhabitantsof manydeveloped countries, includingthe United States, particularlyas the price of1 Received25 August 1980;accepted28 December 1980.Presentedat the Symposiumon Legumes

    at the Twenty-firstAnnualMeetingof the Society for Economic Botany,Bloomington, ndiana,June16-17, 1980;symposiumorganizedby Dr. A. DouglasKinghorn.Mention of a trade name or pro-prietaryproductdoes notconstitutea guaranteeorwarranty f the productby the U.S.D.A. and doesnot implyits approval o the exclusion of otherproducts hat may also be suitable.2 ResearchPlantPathologist,RegionalPlantIntroductionStation,U.S.D.A., SEA, AR, 59 JohnsonHall, WashingtonStateUniversity, Pullman,WA 99164.

    Economic Botany, 35(3), 1981,pp. 300-320(O 1981, by the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. NY 10458

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    302 ECONOMICBOTANY [VOL.35TABLE 1. CONTINUED.

    Type of diseaseFoliageSeed

    or Mosaic Stem Podseed- Yel- and/or and/or spotling Root low defor- Spot- petiole orCrop Pathogen rota rot Wilt ing mation ting blight rotPhoma sp. + + +Phomopsis sp. + +Physalospora sp. +Phytophthora parasitica +Pleonectria megalospora ?Rhizoctonia ferrugena +Sclerotium rolfsii + + +Uredo cajani + ?Uromyces dolicholi + ?

    Virus or virus-like:Rhynchosia mosaic + +Witches'-broom + +Nematodes:Criconemoides sp. +Helicotylenchus dihystera +Hoplolaimus galeatus +Meloidogyne arenaria +M. javanica +Pratylenchus brachyurus +P. schribneri +Rotylenchulus reniformis +Trichodorus christiei +Tylenchorhynchus

    claytoni +Tepary bean Fungi:(Phaseolus Fusarium solani f. sp.acutifolius phaseoli +var. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum + + + +latifolius) Uromyces phaseolivar. typica + ?

    Bacteria:Pseudomonas phaseolicola + + ? +Xanthomonas phaseolicola + + ? +

    Virus or virus-like:Alfalfa mosaic ? +Bean common mosaic +Bean golden mosaic + +Curly top +Pod mottle +Whitefly-transmittedagents + +

    a+, pathogen capable of producing disease in host; +, pathogen may or may not produce disease in host; ?, pathogenicity ofmicroorganism in doubt.

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    19811 KAISER: LEGUME DISEASES 303

    animalprotein increases and people become more concerned about conservingtheir nation's scarce naturalresources and dwindlingenergy supplies.To anticipate some of the problemsthatmay be encountered n expandingthearea under cultivationof different ood legumes, it willbe necessaryto investigatethe different factors which may adverselyaffect production.Diseases frequentlylimit yields and reduce quality of edible legumes in the United States and else-where.The diseases of some of these crops, like bean(SilbernagelandZaumeyer,1973; Zaumeyerand Meiners, 1975), pea (Hagedorn, 1974, 1976)and soybean(Sinclairand Shurtleff, 1975)have been reviewed elsewhere. It is the purposeofthis paperto discuss the diseases of 4 less common food legumes that are culti-vated in the continentalUnited States and PuertoRico. These crops arechickpea(Cicer arietinum L.), lentil, pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth], and teparybean(Phaseolus acutifoliusA. Gray).Foreasy reference,the pathogensaffectingthese 4 crops in the continental United States and PuertoRico have been listedaccordingto the type of disease(s) producedin each crop (Table 1).

    CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)Chickpea, also called garbanzo,gram, or Bengal gram,is an annual, self-pol-linated food legume that is cultivatedin manycountries of the world, frequentlyunder semiaridconditions (van der Maesen, 1972).In 1978, chickpeaswere cul-tivated worldwide on 10,481,000ha (26,202,500acres) with over 90% grown in

    India(FAO, 1979).Chickpeas are growncommercially n the United States, pri-marilyin the central coastal areas of California.In 1978, 5,200 ha (13,000acres)were harvested in California California, 1980). However, in the same year, im-ports of chickpea seeds into the United States exceeded $7,500,000 (USDA,1979b). Currently, here is an interest in testing chickpea as an alternativecropin the drylandareasof other states, e.g., northern daho andeasternWashington(Anonymous, 1980;W. J. Kaiser, unpublished).Diseases

    Differentdiseases affect chickpeawhen they are grownunder drylandas com-pared to irrigatedconditions. In some countries, like India or Iran, diseases ofthis cropare an important actorcontributingo low and erraticyields andquality(Kaiser and Danesh, 1971b;Nene et al., 1978;Sen Gupta, 1974).Much of ourknowledgeof chickpeadiseases in the United States is from researchcarriedoutin Californiaduring he last 25-30 yr.Cultivation of chickpeas in the southerncoastal counties of Californiadatesback to the foundingof the Spanishmissionsover 175yr ago (Smithet al., 1950).By the mid-1930s,chickpeas had become a commercialcrop in this regionwithan annualproductionof some 2,500,000lb (1,136,364 kg) (Smithet al., 1950).Ofthe several