Discrimination of women in employment process

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Transcript of Discrimination of women in employment process

  • The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

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    CCeenntteerr ffoorr EEnnttrreepprreenneeuurrsshhiipp aanndd EEccoonnoommiicc DDeevveellooppmmeenntt ((CCEEEEDD)),, PPooddggoorriiccaa

    CCEEEEDD SSeerriieess:: BBuussiinneessss IIddeeaa

    EEddiittoorr ooff tthhee SSeerriieess:: Veselin Vukotic, Ph.D.

    EEddiittoorr ooff tthhiiss bbooookk:: Petar Ivanovic

    LLaayyoouutt:: CEED

    CCoovveerr DDeessiiggnn:: Nebojsa Klacar, Studio Arhangel

    PPrriinntteedd bbyy:: Montcarton, Podgorica

    The CEED is the first consulting center established in Montenegro to support entrepreneurship and economic development. The mission of the CEED isthrough its programs, projects, and advocacy activitiesto promote and practically implement in Montenegro the ideas of a free market, entrepreneurship, and private ownership in an open and democratic society; and the rule of law. The primary services offered by the center include: (i) research, economic surveys, and SME database development; (ii) policy analysis and recommendations; (iii) business consulting services; (iv) business plan development for aspiring entrepreneurs; (v) basic and advanced business training for start-up and established firms; (vi) support for women entrepreneurs; and (vii) publishing.

    Internet: http://www.cfem.org E-mail: [email protected] Copyright 2002 CCEEEEDD

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior written permission of the publisher.

    Published with support from Kvinna till Kvinna (Sweden) and the Center for International Private Enterprise (USA) within the United States Agency for International Development Program.

    The Center for International Private Enterprise

    Washington, D.C., USA

    The Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development

    Podgorica, Montenegro

    The Kvinna till Kvinna Foundation Stockholm, SWEDEN E-post: [email protected]

  • The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

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  • The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    1. LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES, AND GRAPHS 5 2. INTRODUCTION 7 3. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 8

    4. PROJECT OBJECTIVES 10 5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 12 6. RECOMMENDATIONS 13 7. SNAPSHOT OF MONTENEGRO 14

    7.1 GEOGRAPHIC POSITION ........................................................................................................ 14 7.2 GENERAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................. 14 7.3 POPULATION ........................................................................................................................... 15 7.4 EMPLOYMENT ......................................................................................................................... 15

    8. SAMPLE AND METHODOLOGY 16 9. KEY FINDINGS 20

    9.1 EMPLOYMENT STATUS ......................................................................................................... 20 9.1.1 Current status ....................................................................................................................... 20 9.1.2 Field of work ....................................................................................................................... 20 9.1.3 Work experience .................................................................................................................. 20 9.1.4 Working position ................................................................................................................. 20 9.1.5 Reason for unemployment ................................................................................................... 21 9.1.6 Reasons formerly employed women are no longer employed............................................. 21 9.1.7 Reasons for dismissal .......................................................................................................... 21 9.1.8 Reasons for quitting ............................................................................................................. 21 9.1.9 Job replacement ................................................................................................................... 21 9.1.10 Job source .......................................................................................................................... 22 9.1.11 Maximizing qualifications ................................................................................................. 22

    9.2 DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE........................................................................... 24 9.2.1 Employees sex .................................................................................................................... 24 9.2.2 Career advancement ............................................................................................................ 25 9.2.3 Management ........................................................................................................................ 25 9.2.4 Working environment .......................................................................................................... 25 9.2.5 Staffing ................................................................................................................................ 25 9.2.6 Demonstration of capabilities .............................................................................................. 26 9.2.7 Compensation ...................................................................................................................... 26 9.2.8 Sexual harassment ............................................................................................................... 27 9.2.9 Maternity leave .................................................................................................................... 27 9.2.10 Clothing requests ............................................................................................................... 27

    9.3 RESPONDENTS OPINIONS .................................................................................................. 29 9.3.1 Difficulty of finding work ................................................................................................... 29 9.3.2 Job competition ................................................................................................................... 29 9.3.3 Importance of sex in job search ........................................................................................... 29 9.3.4 Job segregation .................................................................................................................... 30

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    9.3.5 Job satisfaction .................................................................................................................... 30 9.3.6 Reasons men find satisfying work more easily ................................................................... 30

    10. CONCLUSION 31 10.1 COMMENTS ............................................................................................................................ 31

    10.1.1 Finding a job ...................................................................................................................... 31 10.1.2 On the job .......................................................................................................................... 31 10.1.3 Leaving the job .............................................................................................................. 32 10.1.4 What women think ........................................................................................................ 32 10.1.5 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 32

    APPENDIX A: SAMPLE OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 66 APPENDIX B: CROSSTABS 70

  • The Discrimination of Women in the Employment Process and at the Work Place

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    1. LIST OF TABLES, FIGURES, AND GRAPHS

    GRAPHS

    Graph 1 Sample structure by age 15 Graph 2 Education completed 16 Graph 3 Employment status 16 Graph 4 Field of work 19 Graph 5 Working position 19 Graph 6 Replacement at previous job 20 Graph 7 How did you get the job? 21 Graph 8 Do you have the chance to advance your career? 23 Graph 9 Who is the boss in your organization? 23 Graph 10 Do you have to keep proving your capabilities are equal to those of your male

    colleagues? 24

    Graph 11 Wage difference 24 Graph 12 Reasons for men to find work more easily 26 Graph 13 In jobs where there is no physical qualification, are there certain jobs for men

    and certain for women? 27

    Graph 14 Men are more likely than women to find satisfying work 27

    TABLES

    Table 1 Age*Education (Cross Table) 17 Table 2 Education*Employment (Cross Table) 17 Table 3 Age*Employment (Cross Table) 17 Table 4 Field of work*Who replaced you at your previous job? (Crosstabs) 20 Table 5 Do you feel your job makes use of your qualifications?*Education (Crosstabs) 21 Table 6 Field of work*Was your sex an issue for your employer? (Crosstabs) 22 Table 7 Education*Was your sex an issue for your employer? (Crosstabs) 22 Table 8 Field of work*Were men and women competing for a job? (Crosstabs) 26

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    LIST OF TABLES APPENDIX B

    Table 1 Why did you get fired? 65 Table 2 Do (did) you feel your job ma