Discount matrix (Transactional analysis / TA is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology...
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- 1. Discount Matrix
2. Prepared By Manu Melwin Joy Research Scholar School of Management Studies CUSAT, Kerala, India. Phone 9744551114 Mail firstname.lastname@example.org Kindly restrict the use of slides for personal purpose. Please seek permission to reproduce the same in public forms and presentations. 3. Discount Matrix Discounting results in unresolved problems. Thus, if we can devise a systematic way of identifying the nature and intensity of discounting, we will have a powerful tool for problem solving. Such a tool is called discount matrix. 4. Discount Matrix Discount matrix was developed by Ken Mellor and Eric Sigmund. The discount matrix starts from the idea that we classify discounts according to three different criteria. Area. Type. Level. 5. Areas of discounting There are three areas in which people can discount: Self. Others. Situation. 6. Areas of discounting In the example, When I was sitting in the restaurant dropping because the waiter wasnt bringing my glass of water, I was discounting myself. I was ignoring my own ability to take action to get what I wanted. 7. Areas of discounting My friend who got angry and started criticizing the waiter, was discounting not himself but the other person. In judging the waiter incompetent, hew was blanking out any aspects of the waiters actions that might have contradicted his criticism. 8. Areas of discounting Suppose that after drooping for a while, I did turned to my friend and said: Well, there we are. It really isnt fair that these other people are getting served and I am not. But then, this world is an unfair place, isnt it? Here, I did have been discounting the situation. 9. Types of discounting The three types of discounting are of: Stimuli. Problems. Options. 10. Discounting - Stimulus To discount a stimulus is to blank out perception that something is happening at all. As I sat in the restaurant, I might simply not have allowed myself to feel that I was thirsty. 11. Discounting - Stimulus I would have been discounting the stimulus of my own thirst. Maybe my friend, in calling the waiter incompetent, had not seen the way in which the waiter had actually succeeded in serving many other customers, even though the evidence was right there in front of him. 12. Discounting - Problem The person who discounts a problem realizes that something is happening, but ignores the fact that whatever is happening poses a problem. Feeling thirsty there in the restaurant, I might have said to my friend, I feel very thirsty right now, but, oh well, it doesnt 13. Discounting - Options When discounting options, the person is aware that something is happening and that it constitutes a problem. But she blanks out the possibility that anything can be done about the problem. That is where I was discounting in the original version of the restaurant scene. 14. Discounting - Options As I sat drooping, I knew that I felt thirsty. I was aware that my thirst was a problem to me. But I was unawarely ignoring the many options I had, other than just sitting and hoping the waiter to respond. 15. Levels of discounting The four levels of discounting are: Existence. Significance. Change possibilities. Personal abilities 16. Discounting- Existence In the example, I was discounting the existence of my own options to solve the problem. I didnt even consider the possibility of, for example, walking over and speaking to the waiter instead of gesturing to him. 17. Discounting- Significance If I had been discounting the significance of my options, I might have said to my friend: I suppose I could go over and ask him. But I bet asking him wouldnt make a difference. Here, I did have realized there was something different I could do, but blanked out the possibility that his action could have any effect. 18. Discounting- Change possibilities Discounting my options at the level of change possibilities, I might have said: Of course, I could walk across and collar the fellow. But people just dont do that in restaurants. 19. Discounting- Change possibilities In this case, I would have let myself realize that the option existed and that it might have results, while ignoring the possibility that anyone could actually put the option into practice. 20. Discounting- Personal Abilities Here I am aware the options exists and could bring results. I realize that some people in the world might well use that option. But I dismiss my own ability to do so. 21. Discounting Matrix Discounting matrix is compiled by listing all the possible combinations of types and levels of discount. When we do so, we will get the discounting matrix diagram. 22. Discounting Matrix Discounting matrix has three columns for the three types of discount and four rows for the four modes or levels. The wordings in each of the resulting twelve boxes indicates the combination of type and level. 23. Discounting Matrix - Example Suppose two friends are talking. One of them is a heavy smoker. As he lights up yet another cigarette, he is convulsed by a bout of coughing. His friend says to him : Thats is a terrible cough. I am concerned about you. Please give up smoking. What might be the smokers reply if he were discounting in each of the twelve different boxes on the matrix? 24. Discounting existence of stimuli If the smoker were discounting the existence of the stimuli, he might reply: What cough? I was not coughing? 25. Discounting existence of problem If the smoker were discounting the existence of the problem, he might say: Oh, no, I am fine, thanks. I have always had a cough. He is letting himself be aware of his cough, but blotting out the possibility that this may constitute a problem to him. 26. Discounting significance of stimuli In discounting the existence of the problem, he is also discounting the significance of the stimulus. In discounting the possibility that his cough may be a problem, he is also discounting the fact that the cough may have some meaning (Significance) for him. 27. Diagonal arrows This is indicated on the matrix diagram by the diagonal arrow connecting the boxes for existence of problems and Significance of stimuli. The arrow means that one of these discounts will always entail the other. 28. Diagonal Arrows and T numbers All the diagonal arrows on the diagram has this meaning. The T numbers, entered at the top left of each box, are labels for the different diagonals. For instance, discounts of the existence of the problem and the significance of the stimuli corresponds to diagonal T2. 29. Discounting existence of options When we take T3, smoker is discounting the existence of options. He might show this by replying Well, yes, but we smokers do cough, you know?. A short lie and a happy one, that what I say, ha, ha. 30. Discounting existence of options Now he is admitting that he has a cough and that the cough may well indicate a problem, namely that smoking can kill people. But he is blanking out the possibility that anyone can do anything to avoid smokers cough. 31. Discounting significance of the problem In doing so, he also blanks out any perception that the possibility of being killed by smoking is something he might be concerned about. He discounts the significance of the problem. 32. Discounting changeability of stimulus And by his denial that anything can possibly be done by anyone to get rid of a smokers cough, he discounts the changeability of the stimulus. 33. Discounting significance of options The same equivalence of discounts applies along the other diagonals. On T4, the smoker might say: Well, yes, I suppose I should give up really. But I have been smoking for so long, I dont think my giving up now is going to make any difference. 34. Discounting viability of options and persons ability to act on options On T5, he might respond: Sure, you are right. I need to give up, But I cant figure out how to do it. And on T6, the smoker might say: Yes, I have been telling myself for ages I should throw my cigarettes and lighter away. But I just cant seem to get round to it. 35. Discounting matrix Another feature of this matrix is that a discounting in any box also entails discounts in the boxes below and to its right. 36. Discounting - Sequence Suppose a person is discounting the existence of a problem. Since he is not allowing himself to be aware that the problem even exists, he is obviously also going to blank out any perception that the problem may be significant. 37. Discounting - Sequence Nor will he be thinking whether he or anyone else can solve the problem. He is thus discounting in the entire column of boxes related to problems. And since he is ignoring the existence of the problem, why should he consider whether there are options for solving it? Because he thus discounts the existence of options, he will also discount all the other boxes in the options column. 38. Discounting - Sequence Finally, recall that a discount of the existence of problem is equivalent to discounting the significance of stimuli, along diagonal T2. Therefore, the other two boxes below it in the stimuli column will be discounted also. 39. Discounting matrix A person discounting on any diagonal will be discounting in all the boxes below and to the right of that diagonal. 40. Activity Make up the discount matrix for this example. Wife and husband have just settled down in bed for the night. Then, in the next room, their baby starts crying. The husband says Do you think one of use should go and see why the baby is crying? 41. Levels of Discounting The EXISTENCE of a problem, e.g. a baby cries and the parents go to sleep. The SIGNIFICANCE of a problem Oh the baby always cries at this time. The CHANGE POSSIBILITIES The baby will never be satisfied. The PERSONAL ABILITY to actually carry out the change You could