Dinamik Stretching

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    By

    Ishak Ismail

    Ketua Jabatan Pendidikan Jasmani

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    Over the last decade, lot of

    information and misinformation hasbeen disseminated through the booksand media, coach, lecturer, instructor,athletes and parents about the good

    and the bad of stretching

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    Introduction

    Stretching, It has long been suggestedthat performing a warm up and acool down before and after sporting

    activity can help reduce the incidenceof injury and promote recoveryfollowing training and matches.

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    In order to understand correctstretching techniques it isbeneficial to know a little about

    the biochemical and physiologicalproperties of the soft tissues thatare being stretched. All softtissues (muscles, tendons, joint

    capsules, fascia, skin) are moreextensible when they are warm.

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    All stretching is ineffectiveif it is performed when thebody is cold, and should

    therefore be preceded by aseries of warm-upexercises to increase tissuetemperature

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    Central to these practices is improvingflexibility through stretching. Here, we guideyou through the science of stretching, explain

    the various techniques for the level ofstretching appropriate to requirements, andprovide a comprehensive programe ofstretches.

    So let's get started.

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    Muscles and tendons have a neural reflex arcthat prevents excessive stretching, or tensiondeveloping. Receptor nerves within the muscle

    are sensitive to changes in muscle length andtension. When a muscle is stretched, the musclespindles send a message to the central nervoussystem to cause a reflex contraction of the

    muscle in order to prevent stretch damage.

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    However, if the stretch ismaintained for morethan 6 seconds the Golgitendon organs respond

    to the change in muscletension by sending asignal to the centralnervous system which

    causes the muscle torelax. The total durationof the stretch should beabout 20 seconds.

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    There are several methods of stretching softtissues. If a player has been injured, thephysiotherapist may do the stretches passively.

    In the pre-match warm up the players do thestretching exercises themselves - this is knownas ACTIVE stretching.

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    This requires relaxation and sustainedstretching of a muscle. The degree of stretchingcan be sub-divided as follows:

    Simple Stretch Drastic Stretch

    Developmental Stretch

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    usually used in the rehabilitation of injuredplayers, rather than with fit players. The playershould feel very mild tension in the muscle and

    this should be held for 10 to 30 seconds.

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    Yet stretching is still an area of training is thatnot fully understood as strength, speed, powerand endurance training

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    Developmental Stretching is performed at theend of your exercise session. DevelopmentalStretches focus on increasing the muscle lengthor muscle flexibility. These stretches are held for

    an initial 6 to 10 seconds and then the stretchshould be taken a bit further for another 20 to 30seconds.

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    The real question is whether the type of

    stretching we chose to perform before activitywill have an affect on the performance andinjury levels of our athletes.

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    4 types of stretching that has been performprior exercise:

    Static

    Dynamic Ballistic

    PNF

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    Many coaches advocate the use of static

    stretching prior to exercise. Static stretchinginvolves reaching forward to a point of tensionand holding the stretch. Static stretching has

    been used through out the years for two mainreasons: injury prevention and performanceenhancement

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    Does static stretchingprior to activityachieve the goals of

    injury prevention andperformanceenhancement?

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    Research has shown that static stretching canbe detrimental to performance and doesntnecessarily lead to decreases in injury. Beloware a few studies done on the topic of static.

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    PNF is the form of stretching in which a musclealternatingly stretch passively and contracted.The technique targets nerve receptors in the

    muscle to extend the muscle length.

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    Ballistic stretches involve trying to force a partof the body beyondits range of motion. Indynamic stretches, there are no bounces or

    "jerky" movements. (www.cmcrossroads.com)

    http://www.cmcrossroads.com/http://www.cmcrossroads.com/
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    The purpose of warm up not only time toincrease body temperature before morestrenuous exercise.

    Then jog, jumping or ridding the static bike isenough.

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    There should be multiple goalsfor the warm-up.

    In physiologist to increase the

    body temperature therefore toincrease the physiologyactivity in our body

    In sports , to prepare and toavoid injuries

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    Warm up is to gain numerous trainingadaptations in many aspects of physical

    conditioning: to improve strength, Flexibility, mobility, muscular endurance,

    coordination and correction the of major minormuscles imbalance (Kovacs, 2010)

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    Once a muscle is lengthened, a contractionoccurs and the muscle, joint, tendons andligaments has to provide force in this stretched

    position.

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    Pope monitored over 1600 recruits over the

    course of a year in randomised controlledtrials. He found no differences in theoccurrence of injury between those recruitswho statically stretched and those who did not.(www.pponline.co.uk; Pope, 2005)

    http://www.pponline.co.uk/http://www.pponline.co.uk/
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    Research has shown that

    static stretching decreaseseccentric strength for up toan hour after the stretch. SShas been shown to decrease

    muscle strength by up to 9%for 60-min minutesfollowing the stretch anddecrease eccentric strengthby 7% followed by a specifichamstring stretch. (Critchell,2000)

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    Rosenbaum and Hennig

    (1995) showed that staticstretching reduced peakforce by 5% and the rate offorce production by

    8%. This study was aboutAchilles tendon reflexactivity.

    Gerard van der poel (2008)

    stated that static stretchingcaused a specific decreasein the specific coordinationof explosive movements.

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    Three 15-second stretches of the hamstrings,

    quadriceps, and calf muscles reduced the peakvertical velocity of a vertical jump in themajority of subjects (Knudson et al. 2000).

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    There is no relationship between static flexibilityand dynamic flexibility. This suggests that an

    increased static range of motion may not betranslated into functional, sport-specific flexibility,which is largely dynamic in most sportingsituations. (Moscov ,1993)

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    For example, when you run you bend your legs firstthen explode forward. In jumping you must bend yourlegs first then jump. Soccer requires a lot of eccentricpower. Wouldnt it make sense to have optimalpower, coordination and eccentric strength to succeedin soccer? If we shouldnt static stretch before a gameor practice then how can we stretch to optimizeperformance on the field?

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    Many of the best strength

    coaches support the use ofdynamicstretching. Dynamicstretching consists of

    functional based exerciseswhich use sport specificmovements to prepare the

    body for movement(Mann,

    Douglas & Margaret, 2009)

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    Mike Boyle (2003) uses a dynamic warm-up with

    his athletes. He goes through about 26000workouts over the course of a summer. In 2002 hedid not have one major muscle pull that requiredmedical attention.

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    Another studies showed that dynamicstretching does increase flexibility. (Kurz & Thomas,2010)

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    Strength coaches supportthe use of dynamicstretching. Dynamic

    stretching consists offunctional based exerciseswhich use sport specificmovements to prepare the

    body for movement. (Mann,Douglass & Margarett, 2009)

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    Kurz, (www.scienceofsports.com), "involves moving

    parts of your body and gradually increasingreach, speed of movement, or both." Do notconfuse dynamic stretching with ballisticstretching! Dynamic stretching consists of

    controlled leg and arm swings that take you(gently!) to the limits of your ROM

    http://www.scienceofsports.com/http://www.scienceofsports.com/http://www.scienceofsports.com/http://www.scienceofsports.com/http://www.scienceofsports.com/http://www.scienceofsports.com/
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    We should change.We should learning

    We should understand

    Th k Y