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Transcript of Digitalization of Maritime Transport Documents the world. Second, maritime transport documents have

  • Digitalization of Maritime Transport

    Documents

    A study of the interplay of public rules and private norms amid social

    changes

    Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades

    des Fachbereichs Rechtswissenschaften der Universität Bremen

    vorgelegt von

    Fangzhi Yuan

    September 2019

  • I

    Table of Content

    Abbreviation List .................................................................................................................... V

    Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 1

    Chapter 1 –Digitalization of Maritime Transport Documents: What and Why ................ 7

    A. Maritime Transport ........................................................................................................... 8

    I. International Seaborne Trade .......................................................................................... 9

    1. Maritime Transport Service ....................................................................................... 9

    2. Delivery and Payment .............................................................................................. 11

    3. Cargo Insurance ....................................................................................................... 15

    4. Summary on the International Seaborne Trade ........................................................ 16

    II. Maritime Transport Documents .................................................................................. 17

    1. Maritime Transport Documents: An Overview........................................................ 18

    a) Bills of Lading ..................................................................................................... 18

    b) Sea waybills and other non-negotiable instruments ............................................ 20

    c) Other Documents ................................................................................................. 22

    2. Maritime Transport Documents in Digital Environment: Which is the Most Suitable

    Research Subject? ........................................................................................................ 23

    III. Summary .................................................................................................................... 26

    B. Digitalization of Maritime Transport Documents ........................................................... 27

    I. Introduction to Digitalization ....................................................................................... 27

    1. Digitalization............................................................................................................ 28

    2. Digitalization and Maritime Transport Sector ......................................................... 30

    a) Maritime Transport Sector and Information and Communication Technology ... 31

    b) Challenges ........................................................................................................... 33

    3. Conclusion ............................................................................................................... 34

    II. Legal Issues Relating to Digitalization of Maritime Transport Documents ............... 35

  • II

    1. Procedural Law Issues ............................................................................................. 35

    a) Void ab initio .................................................................................................... 36

    b) Void by Court ................................................................................................... 38

    2. Substantive Law Issues ............................................................................................ 40

    a) Legal Recognition of Electronic Bills of Lading ............................................. 41

    b) Transfer of Electronic Bills of Lading ............................................................. 42

    III. Summary: Role of Law .............................................................................................. 45

    C. Conclusion ....................................................................................................................... 47

    Chapter 2 – Examining the Harmonization Status of Laws Governing Digitalization of

    Maritime Transport Documents ........................................................................................... 49

    A. Legislative Approach to Promote Harmonization in Electronic Law .......................... 49

    I. Lawmaking Bodies and Methods ................................................................................. 50

    II. UNCITRAL Legislations ............................................................................................ 53

    1. Law Principles ......................................................................................................... 53

    a. Non-Discrimination.............................................................................................. 53

    b. Functional Equivalence ........................................................................................ 55

    c. Technology Neutrality .......................................................................................... 56

    d. Party Autonomy ................................................................................................... 57

    2. Summary .................................................................................................................. 57

    B. Comparing Laws on Digitalization of Maritime Transport Documents ......................... 59

    I. Comparative Method ............................................................................................... 60

    II. Laws and Practices on National Level ........................................................................ 62

    1. The US Law ............................................................................................................. 62

    aa. Law Principles .................................................................................................... 63

    bb. Summary ............................................................................................................ 64

    b. Form ..................................................................................................................... 64

    aa. Writing ............................................................................................................ 64

    bb. Originality ...................................................................................................... 67

  • III

    cc. Signature ......................................................................................................... 68

    c. Transferability ...................................................................................................... 69

    2. EU Law .................................................................................................................... 70

    a. Law Principles ................................................................................................. 72

    aa. Principles ........................................................................................................ 72

    bb. Summary ........................................................................................................ 74

    b. Form ................................................................................................................. 75

    aa. Writing ............................................................................................................ 75

    bb. Originality ...................................................................................................... 78

    cc. Signature ......................................................................................................... 78

    c. Transferability .................................................................................................. 79

    3. Chinese Law............................................................................................................. 80

    a. Law Principles ................................................................................................. 81

    aa. Principles ........................................................................................................ 81

    bb. Summary ........................................................................................................ 82

    b. Form ..................................................................................................................... 82

    aa. Writing ............................................................................................................ 82

    bb. Originality ...................................................................................................... 83

    cc. Signature ......................................................................................................... 85

    c. Transferability ...................................................................................................... 86

    III. Comparison .................................................................