Difusi³n transocenica de plantas y animales antes de 1492 - Carl Lewis Johannessen

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Transcript of Difusi³n transocenica de plantas y animales antes de 1492 - Carl Lewis Johannessen

  • 1. Overseas Plant and Animal Diffusion Before 1492 By Carl L. Johannessen Professor Emeritus, Biogeographer

2. World Map 3. India Detail Karnataka Pradesh 4. Letters From Ohio Agricultural Research and Developmental Center, Wooster Ohio 5. Letters from Wooster, Ohio 6. Corn, Sunflowers, Peanuts, and Annona 7. Temple Layout, Somnathpur, India 8. Halebid Temple, India 9. Variation in Shape of Corn Ears, Peru for comparison to India 10. Variation in the Shape of Corn Ears, China 11. Indian Sculpture of Corn 12. Indian Sculpture of Corn

  • Corn Maiden Sculpture
  • Corn Ear from Mexico

13. Maize Anatomical Structures

  • Maize Seed Arrangement
  • American Maize

14. Maize Ears Sculpture and Hand Mudra Somnathpur Temple, India 15. Yaksha Sculpture with Maize

  • 8th Century
  • From 5000 Years of Art in India
  • Mexican Maize Ear

16. Maize

  • Somnathpur Four Row, Unpollinated and Husk
  • Maize Ear at end of Pollinating Season

17. Maize God, Mexico Note Curls on Headdress of Maize 18. Spiral Kernel Seeds Kedareshvara, Halebid, India 19. Sharp Kernelled Maize Ears, Dog-Toothed 20. Sculpture of Chihuahua with Maize Ear,Colima, Mexico 21. Tessellated Base Kernels Somnathpur 22. ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS OF MAIZE SHOWN IN INDIAN 20 TEMPLE SCULPTURES Traits Sculpture Numbers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 2a X X X X X X X X X X X X X 2b X X X X X X 3a X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 3b X 3c X X X 4 X X X X X X X X 5 X X X X X X X X X X X X 6 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 7 X 8 X 10 X 11 X X X 12 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 14a X 14b X 14c X 16 X X 18a X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 18b X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 18c X X X X X X X X X X X X X 18d X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 19 X X X X 20 1.1 1.1-1.2 1.3-1.6 1.1 1.1-1.2 1.0-1.5 1.2 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.2-1.4 1.3 1.1 1.3 1.0 21a X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 21b X X X X X X X 23 X 26 X 27 X 28 X 23. 24. Corn Maidens 25. Sunflowers Oriented Toward Sun 26. Nandi Seen From Inside Halebid Temple 27. Sunflower Sculpture Below Nandis Horn with sunflower as if at Dawn, Halebid Temple 28. Sunflower above Ear of Nandi (detail) 29. Sunflower under Nandis Tail used as a calendar, Halebid Temple 30. Nandi at Amruthteshvara with Sunflower Below Horn 31. Sunflower at Foot of Corn Maiden 32. Sunflower under Skirt of Corn Maiden (detail) 33. Long-tailed Indian Parrot on Sunflower, Pattadakal, India 34. Lotus Flower 35. Lotus Flowers in Rajasthan Temple, Representation of the Heart Chakra 36. Lotus Flower Seed Pods, at Center 37. Modern Primitive Peanut, Southern China 38. Annona in Hindu and Buddhist Art, (note Cashew on Stupa Art as well) 39. Annona Sculpture, Ahole, India 40. Other Evidence 41. Mexican Prickle Poppy (Medicine) 42. Datura (Medicinal) 43. Two Transferred Gourds

  • Lagenaria Gourd
  • Malabar Gourd

44. Grain Amaranth 45. Marigold and Bixa Tree 46. Entire Corn and Chili Plants Note Ears on middle stem (top plate) and Chili Peppers (bottom plate), Java, Indonesia 47. Corn Cob Used in Mortuary Bird,Head and Tail Broken Off

  • Maize Cob used as armature for ceramic bird.
  • Used for deceased royalty and broken off at the burial.
  • Dated to before 1000 C.E.

48. Unintentional Transfers

  • Domestic Cat
  • Lesser Grain Borer

49. Unintentional Transfers Rat and its Fleas 50. Conclusion 51. Educational Opportunities

  • This is only the beginning of the research.
  • Cultural Traits and other plants are all areas of research for your students and yourselves.
  • Our book offers many suggestions for further research.
  • It is my hope that you have gained a new perspective and will assist with insights for further explorations

52. 53. The End