Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins - · PDF fileDietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins Nutrient...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    10-Nov-2018
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    219
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins - · PDF fileDietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins Nutrient...

  • Dietary Reference Intakes: Vitamins

    Nutrient Function Life StageGroup

    RDA/AI* ULa Selected FoodSources

    Adverse effects ofexcessive consumption

    SpecialConsiderations

    Biotin Coenzyme insynthesis of fat,glycogen, andamino acids

    Infants06 mo712 mo

    Children13 y48 y

    Males913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Females913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Pregnancy 18 y19-30y31-50 y

    Lactation 18 y19-30y3150 y

    (g/d)5*6*

    8*12*

    20*25*30*30*30*30*

    20*25*30*30*30*30*

    30*30*30*

    35*35*35*

    NDbND

    NDND

    NDNDNDNDNDND

    NDNDNDNDNDND

    NDNDND

    NDNDND

    Liver and smalleramounts in fruits andmeats

    No adverse effects of biotin inhumans or animals werefound. This does not meanthat there is no potential foradverse effects resulting fromhigh intakes. Because dataon the adverse effects ofbiotin are limited, caution maybe warranted.

    None

    Choline Precursor foracetylcholine,phospholipids andbetaine

    Infants06 mo712 mo

    Children13 y48 y

    Males913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Females913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Pregnancy 18 y19-30y31-50 y

    Lactation 18 y19-30y3150 y

    (mg/d)125*150*

    200*250*

    375*550*550*550*550*550*

    375*400*425*425*425*425*

    450*450*450*

    550*550*550*

    (mg/d)NDND

    10001000

    200030003500350035003500

    200030003500350035003500

    300035003500

    300035003500

    Milk, liver, eggs,peanuts

    Fishy body odor, sweating,salivation, hypotension,hepatotoxicity

    Individuals withtrimethylaminuria, renaldisease, liver disease,depression andParkinsons disease,may be at risk of adverseeffects with cholineintakes at the UL.

    Although AIs have beenset for choline, there arefew data to assesswhether a dietary supplyof choline is needed at allstages of the life cycle,and it may be that thecholine requirement canbe met by endogenoussynthesis at some ofthese stages.

    NOTE: The table is adapted from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu. It represents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type, Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary typefollowed by an asterisk (*), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)a. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

    aUL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, andsupplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, or carotenoids. In the absence of ULs,extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes.

    bND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be fromfood only to prevent high levels of intake.

    SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6,Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary ReferenceIntakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may beaccessed via www.nap.edu. Copyright 2001 by The National Academies. All rights reserved.

    http://www.nap.edu/

  • Dietary Reference Intakes: VitaminsNutrient Function Life Stage

    GroupRDA/AI* ULa Selected Food

    SourcesAdverse effects ofexcessive consumption

    Special Considerations

    Folate

    Also known as:Folic acidFolacinPteroylpolyglutamates

    Note: Given as dietaryfolate equivalents (DFE).1 DFE = 1 g food folate= 0.6 g of folate fromfortified food or as asupplement consumedwith food = 0.5 g of asupplement taken on anempty stomach.

    Coenzyme in themetabolism ofnucleic and aminoacids; preventsmegaloblasticanemia

    Infants06 mo712 mo

    Children13 y48 y

    Males913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Females913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Pregnancy 18 y19-30y31-50 y

    Lactation 18 y19-30y3150 y

    (g/d)65*80*

    150200

    300400400400400400

    300400400400400400

    600600600

    500500500

    (g/d) NDb

    ND

    300400

    600800

    1,0001,0001,0001,000

    600800

    1,0001,0001,0001,000

    8001,0001,000

    8001,0001,000

    Enriched cerealgrains, dark leafyvegetables, enrichedand whole-grainbreads and breadproducts, fortifiedready-to-eat cereals

    Masks neurologicalcomplication in people withvitamin B12 deficiency.

    No adverse effectsassociated with folate fromfood or supplements havebeen reported. This does notmean that there is nopotential for adverse effectsresulting from high intakes.Because data on the adverseeffects of folate are limited,caution may be warranted.

    The UL for folate applies tosynthetic forms obtained fromsupplements and/or fortifiedfoods.

    In view of evidence linkingfolate intake with neuraltube defects in the fetus, itis recommended that allwomen capable ofbecoming pregnantconsume 400 g fromsupplements or fortifiedfoods in addition to intakeof food folate from avaried diet.

    It is assumed that womenwill continue consuming400 g from supplementsor fortified food until theirpregnancy is confirmedand they enter prenatalcare, which ordinarilyoccurs after the end of thepericonceptional periodthe critical time forformation of the neuraltube.

    Niacin

    Includes nicotinic acidamide, nicotinic acid(pyridine-3-carboxylicacid), and derivativesthat exhibit the biologicalactivity of nicotinamide.

    Note: Given as niacinequivalents (NE). 1 mgof niacin = 60 mg oftryptophan; 06 months= preformed niacin (notNE).

    Coenzyme orcosubstrate inmany biologicalreduction andoxidationreactionsthusrequired for energymetabolism

    Infants06 mo712 mo

    Children13 y48 y

    Males913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Females913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Pregnancy 18 y19-30y31-50 y

    Lactation 18 y19-30y3150 y

    (mg/d)2*4*

    68

    121616161616

    121414141414

    181818

    171717

    (mg/d)NDND

    1015

    203035353535

    203035353535

    303535

    303535

    Meat, fish, poultry,enriched and whole-grain breads andbread products,fortified ready-to-eatcereals

    There is no evidence ofadverse effects from theconsumption of naturallyoccurring niacin in foods.

    Adverse effects from niacincontaining supplements mayinclude flushing andgastrointestinal distress.

    The UL for niacin applies tosynthetic forms obtained fromsupplements, fortified foods,or a combination of the two.

    Extra niacin may berequired by personstreated with hemodialysisor peritoneal dialysis, orthose with malabsorptionsyndrome.

    NOTE: The table is adapted from the DRI reports, see www.nap.edu. It represents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type, Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary typefollowed by an asterisk (*), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)a. RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

    aUL = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, andsupplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, or carotenoids. In the absence of ULs,extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes.

    bND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be fromfood only to prevent high levels of intake.

    SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6,Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary ReferenceIntakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may beaccessed via www.nap.edu. Copyright 2001 by The National Academdies. All rights reserved.

    http://www.nap.edu/

  • Dietary Reference Intakes: VitaminsNutrient Function Life Stage

    GroupRDA/AI* ULa Selected Food

    SourcesAdverse effects ofexcessive consumption

    Special Considerations

    Pantothenic Acid Coenzyme in fattyacid metabolism

    Infants06 mo712 mo

    Children13 y48 y

    Males913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Females913 y1418 y1930 y31-50 y50-70 y> 70 y

    Pregnancy 18 y19