Diagrams Preso

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My presentation on the cognitive principles of diagrams for VizThink09

Transcript of Diagrams Preso

  • 1. WhyDiagrams are Worth a Thousand Words
    • Clark Quinn, Ph.D.

2.

  • ...DesignWare
  • ...UCSD...
  • ...UNSW...
  • ... Quinnovation
    • Independent Consultancy
    • Making organizations smarter

3. Why do we use diagrams? 4. Diagrams

  • Map conceptual relationships to spatial relationships (using our robust visual processing system to support comprehension)

5. Communication Roles of Media 6. Aside: the importance of models

  • Mental Models
  • Conceptual Models
  • Conceptual Relationships

7. How do diagrams work? 8. Diagrams work... In the representations we call diagrammatic,information is organized by location , and oftenmuch of the information needed to make an inference is present and explicit at a single location . In addition,cues to the next logical step in the problem may be present at an adjacent location . Therefore problem solving can proceed through a smooth traversal of the diagram, and mayrequire very little search or computation of elementsthat had been implicit. -Larkin, J.H., & Simon, H.A.Why a Diagram is (Sometimes) Worth Ten Thousand Words.Cognitive Science, 11, 1. 9. Diagrams work...

  • information is organizedby location
  • muchof the information needed to make an inference is present and explicit at a single location
  • cues to the next logical step in the problemmaybe present at anadjacentlocation
  • require very little search or computation of elements

10. Location & Flow 11. Three Types:

  • Spatial
  • Conceptual
  • Graphs & Charts

12. Conceptual

    • these take a collection of items and relationships between them, and express them by giving each item a 2D position, while the relationships are expressed as connections between the items or overlaps between the items -Wikipedia

13. Graphs/Charts

    • which display a relationship between two variables that take either discrete or a continuous ranges of values -Wikipedia

14. Diagrams

  • Map conceptual relationships to spatial relationships (using our robust visual processing system to support comprehension)

15. Conceptual Elements

  • Human Information Processing
  • Sensory Store
  • Short Term Memory (STM)
  • Long Term Memory (LTM)
  • Motor System

16. HIP Stores 17. And their relationships

  • Information Processing
  • Attention
  • Rehearsal
  • Elaboration
  • Recall
  • Recognition
  • Action

18. HIP System 19. Principles 20. Cognitive Analysis

  • Appropriateness - minimalism
  • Naturalness - model/rep match
  • Matching - to task
  • Congruence - visual/mental match
  • Apprehension - quick perception

21. A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away. - Antoine de Saint-Exupery 22. Cognitive Load 23. Cognitive Load 24. Cognitive Load 25. External Representation

  • Computational offloading
  • Re-representation
  • Graphic constraining

26. Computational offloading

  • They found that while subjects would rate the analogies, from best to worst, as literally similar, true analogy, mere appearance, and false analogy, their recall for stories, from best to worst, was literally similar, mere appearance, true analogy, and false analogy.

27. Re-representation 28. Graphic Constraints 29. Semiotics

  • Icon
  • Index
  • Symbol

30. Scanning 31. Attention 32. TopDown & BottomUp 33. Processing 34. Additional Dimensions 35. Tuning is nine-tenths of the effort Will Wright 36. Evolution 37. Re-Representation 38. Designing a Diagram? 39. Designing a Diagram?

  • Identify Task/Goal
  • Choose Model
  • Choose Components
    • Identify Elements
    • Identify Relationships
    • Choose Additional Dimensions
  • Choose Representation
    • Choose Element Representation
    • Choose Relationship Representation
    • Choose Dimension Coding
  • Place Elements
  • Add Relationships
  • Layer Additional Dimensions
  • Tune
  • (Graphic Design)

40. Designing a Diagram? 41. Diagrams

  • Map conceptual relationships to spatial relationships (using our robust visual processing system to support comprehension)

42. Action!

  • Use Models
  • Design Diagrams
  • Accelerate Learning & Performance!

43.

  • Thanks!
  • [email_address]
  • +1-925-200-0881
  • site: quinnovation.com
  • blog: learnlets.com
  • book: engaginglearning.com
  • twitter: @quinnovator

Diagramscanbe worth 1000 words!