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Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical Preservatives C.P. Ulpathakumbura AG/2008/2009/148 Department of Animal and Food Sciences Faculty of Agriculture Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

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In here i try to evaluate preservative ability of biological preservative over chemical preservatives.

Transcript of Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical...

Page 1: Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical Preservatives

Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for

Chemical Preservatives

C.P. Ulpathakumbura

AG/2008/2009/148

Department of Animal and Food Sciences

Faculty of Agriculture

Rajarata University of Sri Lanka

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Introduction

• Milk is the most natural and nutritious, single food

on the earth

• Cows’ milk use for make several types of foods

• Cheese is a preserved form of milk made by using

live cultures to transform the milk through chemical

process, and then by the coagulation

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Problem and Justification

• Cheese have high nutritional value• Preservatives use for the prevent the spoilage

Preservatives

Chemical Biological

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• By using chemical preservatives

• Can use biological preservatives

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Nisin Lysozyme

Lactic Acid Bacteria

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Objectives

• General Objective

– Development of a Cheddar cheese using biological

Preservatives as substitute for chemical preservatives

Preservatives

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• Specific Objectives

– To evaluate sensory properties of the cheddar cheese

– To assess the microbial properties of cheddar cheese

– To evaluate the physico-chemical properties of the cheddar cheese

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Methodology

Step 1 • Preliminary studies

Step 2 • Cheese making process

Step 3 • Analysis of samples

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Raw milk Cooling milkPasteurizationStandardization

Add preservatives

Add CaCl2Starter

inoculationAdd rennet

Incubation Remove wheyHeat/Cooking 1Cut curd

Milling Heat/ Cooking 2Remove wheyPressing

Salting Cheddar cheese

Waxing & StoringMolding

Cheddar Cheese Making Process

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Preliminary StudiesStudy 01 - Select optimum time for the incubation

• pH were measured in each samples

Treatment Temperature Time

T1 32°C 30 minutes

T2 32°C 45 minutes

T3 32°C 60 minutes

T4 32°C 75 minutes

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• Study 02 - Select the optimum level of Rennet

• Flavor was checked in each sample during storage

Treatment Amount Time

T1 0.05% 30 minutes

T2 0.04% 30 minutes

T3 0.06% 30 minutes

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Study 03 - Select the optimum temperature for cooking

• Flavor and odor were checked in each sample during storage

Treatment Temperature Time

T1 32°C 40 minutes

T2 35°C 40 minutes

T3 38°C 40 minutes

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• Selection of the best sample made by using different preservatives

Treatment Preservative

T1 - T2 Lysozyme

T3 NaNO3

T4 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB)

T5 Nisin

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• Sensory Evaluation

– Used 35 untrained panelists

– Ranking test (5-like very much to 1-dislike very

much)

– Color, Flavor, Texture, Odor and Overall acceptability

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• Analysis of Cheese Samples

A. Physico-chemical analysisB. Microbial analysisC. Proximity analysisD. Sensory evaluation

Week 0

Week 1

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4• A

• B• A• B

• A• B• D

• A• B

• A• B• C

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1. Physico-chemical Analysis

• Dry matter percentage (DM %) - Oven dry method

• Moisture percentage (M %) - (100 – DM%)

• Texture - Instron machine

• pH - pH meter

• Titratable acidity - Titrating with NaOH

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2. Proximate analysis

• Fat content - Gerber method

• Protein content - Kjeldhal method

• Ash content - Ignition in Muffle

furnace

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3. Microbial Analysis

• Yeast and Mold count - PDA

• Total lactic acid bacteria count - MRS agar

• Coliform count - Violet red bile agar

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Data Analysis

• Parametric data analysis– ANOVA for significance under α=0.05 level using SAS

• Data from sensory analysis– Friedman non – parametric test using Minitab

• Data from microbial analysis– Compare with Sri Lankan Standards (SLS 773-1987)

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• Study 01 - Select optimum time for the incubation

– 45 min in 32°C incubated sample (T2) was given

optimum pH (5.6-5.9)Treatment pH

T1 6.4

T2 5.8

T3 5.1

T4 4.7

Results and Discussion

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• Study 02 - Select the optimum level of rennet

– 0.05% and 0.06% had bitter taste (1 week storage)

– 0.04 % able to obtain a fine textured cheese without

bitter taste

0.06 % 0.04 % 0.05 %

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• Study 03 - Select the optimum temperature for cooking

– T3 sample (38°C in 40 min) was better than other

– No bitter taste and off odor during storage

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• Sensory Evaluation

– The best sample is nisin incorporated sample

– There was a significant difference in all attributes except in colour

Colour

Flavour

OdorTexture

Overall acceptability

0

5

Control

Lysozyme

NaNO3

Lactic acid bacteria

Nisin

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• Physico-chemical Analysis• Titratable acidity variation of samples

0 1 2 3 41.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

Control LysozymeNaNO3LABNisin

Weeks

Titr

atab

le a

cidi

ty

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• pH variation of samples

0 1 2 3 44.00

4.50

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

Control LysozymeNaNO3LABNisin

Weeks

pH

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• Texture variation of samples

0 1 2 3 40.020

0.021

0.022

0.023

0.024

0.025

0.026

0.027

0.028

0.029

Control LysozymeNaNO3LABNisin

Weeks

Text

ure

(N)

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• Dry matter content variation of samples

0 1 2 3 450.00

55.00

60.00

65.00

70.00

75.00

80.00

Control LysozymeNaNO3LABNisin

Weeks

Dry

matt

er %

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• Moisture content variation of sample

0 1 2 3 420.00

25.00

30.00

35.00

40.00

45.00

50.00

Control LysozymeNaNO3LABNisin

Weeks

Moi

stur

e %

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• Proximate Analysis• Fat content

10.00

10.50

11.00

11.50

12.00

12.50

13.00

13.50

a

a

a

a

a

Fat %

Cheese Samples

Fat %

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• Protein content

8.25

8.3

8.35

8.4

8.45

8.5

8.55

8.6

a a

aa

a

Avg

Cheese Samples

Proti

en %

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• Ash content

9.20

9.40

9.60

9.80

10.00

10.20

10.40

10.60

10.80

11.00

11.20

a

a

a

a a

Series1

Cheese Samples

Ash%

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• Microbial Analysis• Yeast and Mold count

0 1 2 3 40

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Control LysozymeNaNO3LABNisin

Weeks

cfu/

g

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• Total lactic acid bacteria count

• Coliform count were zero during storage

0 1 2 3 47.90

8.00

8.10

8.20

8.30

8.40

8.50

8.60

8.70

Control Nisin

Weeks

Log

cfu/

g

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Conclusion

• Biological preservative can be used to

preserve the Cheddar cheese effectively

without affecting the sensory qualities

• Nisin is the best biological preservative

among the tested preservatives

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Suggestions

• Use biological preservatives as a blend and

evaluate the preservative ability

• Incorporation of starter culture with probiotic

microorganisms may bring additional benefits

and preservative ability

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Thank you

Page 37: Development of a Cheddar Cheese Using Biological Preservatives as Substitute for Chemical Preservatives

Cost Benefit AnalysisPreservative g per 100l of milk Price for kg

Nisin 0.5 Rs. 18000

Lysozyme 2.5 Rs. 22000

NaNO3 1.5 Rs. 8500

LAB 5 Rs. 42000

1l 40g – 50g