Design of interactive mobile and ubiquitous applications

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Keynote Talk at 13th 3IA Conference, July 2010 Design of interactive technologies for a mobile and ubiquitous world

Transcript of Design of interactive mobile and ubiquitous applications

  • 1.Invited talk, Athens 29 May 2010 Design of interactivetechnologies for amobile and ubiquitous world Nikolaos AvourisUniversity of Patras Human-Computer Interaction Group http://hci.ece.upatras.gr

2. Human-Computer InteractionGroupUniversity of Patras, Greece 3. Mobile and ubiquitous computingUbiquitous computing is a post-desktop modelof human-computer interaction in whichinformation processing has been integrated intoeveryday objects and activities. Reliance on context / physical environment New kinds of applications (leisure related, everyday activities) Many variations, flavours, technologies Focus on devices or specific servicesHow to design such applications?3 4. Ubiquitous computing application domains 4 5. Ubiquitous Computing ArchitectureDirectory servicesDigital Information ProvidersSpacesBrokersDirectoryService Providers Provider 1Service Provider iProfile ManagementDynamic Service User Service BindingBrokerProfilesUser Agency Space Owner SystemPhysical space Semantics of Local Service spaceProvider j Spaceinformation Historical usersystem interaction dataPhysicaland sensory datahyperlink 5 6. Ubiquitous Computingapplications examples6 7. Museum Game: Inheritance (1/2) Collaborative game that requires the players todiscover a special exhibit in a museum based onhints that must be discovered and collected fromthe descriptions of exhibits. Direct interaction with physical artifacts- thatbecome augmented artefacts that are easier toperceive using the mobile device and physicalhyperlinksA. Stoica, G. Fiotakis, D. Raptis, I. Papadimitriou, V. Komis, N. Avouris (2007), Field evaluation ofcollaborative mobile applications, chapter LVIX in J. Lumsden (ed.), Handbook of Research on UserInterface Design and Evaluation for Mobile Technology, pp. 994-1011, Hershey, PA, IGI GlobalPapadimitriou I., Komis V., Tselios N., Avouris N., (2006) Designing PDA Mediated EducationalActivities for a Museum Visit, Proceedings of Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age(CELDA 2006), December 2006, Barcelona, Spain.(http://www.iadis.org/celda2006/)7 8. Museum Game: Inheritance (2/2) 8 9. Mobile library assistant (1/2) Mobile application to assist library visitors: retrieving information about the books by directly interacting with them Searching books similar to those collected by direct interaction Multiple modalities of interaction with the physical artifacts have been chosen 9 10. Mobile library assistant (2/2) 10 11. Museum Guide (1) Investigate multiple modalities for deliveringinformation (text, images, audio) Implement legacy connectors to leverage existinginformation. Build user profiles Physical space navigation support Content authoring support C. Sintoris, D. Raptis, A. Stoica and N. Avouris, (2007) Delivering Multimedia Content in EnabledCultural Spaces,Proceedings of 3rd International Mobile Multimedia Communications Conference,Mobimedia 2007 , August 27-29, 2007, Nafpaktos, Greece, ACM press.11 12. Museum Guide (2) 12 13. Game: MuseumScrabble (1) A team game involving linking exhibits andconnecting them to topics covered by themuseum Deepen the understanding of interaction withdigitally augmented physical artefacts Yiannoutsou N., Papadimitriou I., Komis V. and Avouris N., Playing with museum exhibits:designing educational games mediated by mobile technology, Proc. of IDC 2009, 8th InternationalConference of Interaction Design and Children, June 35, 2009, Como, Italy, pp. 230-233. ACM Press,New York, NY Sintoris C., Stoica A., Papadimitriou I., Yiannoutsou N., Komis V., Avouris N. (2010).MuseumScrabble: Design of a mobile game for childrens interaction with a digitally augmentedcultural space, International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, 2(2), 53-71, April-June201013 14. MuseumScrabble (2) 14 15. BeNatural (1) Personalized mobile shopping assistant. Exploration of a new space with differentdynamics. Investigation of interaction with a differentphysical artefacts (items bought in asupermarket)15 16. The beNatural architecture (2) 16 17. Playful Narrative: Who killed Hanae(Paay et al. 2008) Location based narrative. Goal: find the killer Navigation in Aalborg city through clue collectionand suspect interrogation Chapters of a mystery story are attached todifferent city areasStreet activityScreenshot from the mobile device 17images from Paay et al., 2008 18. City Game: Frequency 1550 (Huizenga et al. 2009) Location based game. Goal: earn citizenship (366days in Amsterdam) Navigation in the historical centre of Amsterdam Assignment undertaking in specific areas of thecityLocation activity the Headquarter view during game playing time18images from http://freq1550.waag.org/ 19. Ubiquitous Computingdesign and evaluation19 20. Abstract design frameworks: An exampleDesign Principles of Playful Narratives (Yiannoutsou et al. 2010)Narrative Role of user Structure of story Playful character Rules of game EngagementLearningSpace Joy thinkingsetting decision makingmotion Interaction factual knowledgebuilding with the technology procedural knowledge with the storybuilding with the physical space social interactions 20 21. Overview of mobile applications design &evaluation practice ( Avouris et al. 2008)Source SystemNumber ofEvaluation Metrics Used Participants Method Jokela et al. Mobile 24 (lab)Laboratory Qualitative measures of user (2008)Multimedia 15 (field)evaluation and behaviour. Presentation Field study Editor Guo et al.Nintendo 20Lab basedSpeed and accuracy in both tasks (2008)Wiimote andcomparativeand user preference through Nunchuk user study questionnaire based controller of a robot Riegelsberg Use of Google24Field study in Qualitative measures and usability er et al. Maps in Mobile four different problems found using group (2008)Deviceslocations. briefing sessions, recorded usage, multiple telephone interviews and debriefs in a lab setting Sanchez etAudioNature, A 10Case study inQualitative measures of al. (2008)pocketPC lab involvingeffectiveness and performance device for typical usersthrough pre and post tests and science learningquestionnaires for the blind Bellotti et al. Leisure guide11Field studyQualitative measures of user (2008)Magittiover a periodexperience recorded throughof several questionnairesdays21 22. Issues to be taken into accountsee Framework of (de Sa et al. 2008) (1) Locations and Settings: Lighting, Noise, Weather,Obstacles, Social Environment. (2) Movement and Posture: variations for sitting, standingand walking (3) Workloads, Distractions and Activities: Criticalactivities, settings or domains requiring different degrees ofattention, Cognitive distractions (e.g., phone ringing, etc),to study cognitive recovery, Physical distractions (4) Devices and Usages: Single vs Dual handed interaction,and Stylus/Finger/Keyboard/Numeric Pad different mobiledevices (e.g., PDAs, Smart Phones, Portable Media Players,etc). (5) Users and Personas: movement and visual impairment,Heterogeneity Age, dexterity, cultural background,profession etc.22 23. Adaptation of existing measuresof user performance Task Load Index (TLX) extended for mobileapplications, in particular for in car tasks, by additionof the Distraction scale (Cook 2006) Measures related to Field Experimentation method(Goodman et al. 2004), e.g. Percentage PreferredWalking Speed (PPWS) Measures related to multitasking characteristics(measures of divided attention)23 24. New settings for labevaluation(e.g. Kjeldskov &Stage 2003) 24 25. New requirements for Content Generation:Create-Attach to Space 25 26. Different evaluation methods and findingsaccording to the phase of the design process early design evaluation(storyboarding, enactment inphysical setting) low fidelity prototype evaluation(a desktop simulation no spatialaspect) high fidelity prototype evaluation(field study) 26 27. Design through enactment (Jacucci, 2004) 27 28. Storyboard and sketching in designand evaluation (Buxton, 2007) 28 29. beNatrural Conceptual mobileapplication design (1st phase) 29 30. beNatrural Conceptual mobileapplication design (2nd phase) 30 31. Low fidelity prototype evaluation2 dimensional Mobilesimulation device of spacesimulation31 32. High fidelity prototype evaluationin the field (Inheritance MuseumGame)32 33. User 1 User 2 User 3 User nFieldstudies:AnalysisMultimediaMultimedia Managerof user Repositoryaction UsersAnalysts context System discussions comments screen 33 34. Dimensions of Analysis 34 35. Use of ActivityLens for data analysis (Fiotakis et al. 2007) 35 36. Discussion 37. Discussion: On design and evaluation .. So far emphasis on user centered interactivesystems design. .. typically done by using an evaluationmethod to measure or predict how effective,efficient and/or satisfied people would bewhen using the system to perform one or moretasks. Usability evaluation methods range fromlaboratory-based user observations, controlleduser studies, and/or inspection techniques37 38. Some criticism of current practice Usability Evaluation can be ineffective andeven harmful if naively done by rulerather than by thought. If done duringearly stage design, it can mute creativeideas that do not conform to currentnorms, especially to new fields likeubiquitous computingIs usability evaluation considered harmful ? (Greenberg and Buxton, 2008) .38 39. Some criticism of current practice Current approaches are often assumingformal task structures more related towork, while todays systems are moreoften related to no structured humanactivities need to move to a more design centeredapproach in evaluation (Cockton 2008) 39 40. Some criticism of current practice Usability should be related to the value aproduct has for its users, as often usableproducts are not useful (Cockton 2007, 2008) The usability evaluation results should bejudged in terms of their downstream utilityto designers, (Law et al., 2007, Howarth, etal. 2007) 40 41. Challenges: the way aheadl Reseting the relation between evaluation and desi