Derivatives of the epidermis (skin appendages: view2.Describe the factors that normally contribute...

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Transcript of Derivatives of the epidermis (skin appendages: view2.Describe the factors that normally contribute...

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The Skin

1.Name the tissue types composing the epidermis and dermis. List the major layers of each and describe the functions of each layer.

2.Describe the factors that normally contribute to skin color. Briefly describe how changes in skin color may be used as clinical signs of certain disease states.

Appendages of the Skin

3.List the parts of a hair follicle and explain the function of each part. Also describe the functional relationship of arrector pili muscles to the hair follicles.

4.Name the regions of a hair and explain the basis of hair color. Describe the distribution, growth, replacement, and changing nature of hair during the life span.

5.Describe the structure of nails.

6.Compare the structure and locations of sweat and oil glands. Also compare the composition and functions of their secretions.

7.Compare and contrast eccrine and apocrine glands.

Functions of the Integumentary System

8.Describe how the skin accomplishes at least five different functions.

Homeostatic Imbalances of Skin

9.Summarize the characteristics of the three major types of skin cancers.

10.Explain why serious burns are life threatening. Describe how to determine the extent of a burn and differentiate first-, second-, and third-degree burns.

Developmental Aspects of the Integumentary System

11.Describe and attempt to explain the causes of changes that occur in the skin from birth to old age.

The Integumentary System (p. 150)

The integumentary system is made up of:



The Skin (pp. 150157; Figs. 5.15.4)

The skin is composed of two distinct regions:





Four or five distinct layers:

Four types of cells:



Dendritic (Langerhans) cells

Tactile (Merkel) cells

Layers of the Epidermis: Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)

Layers of the Epidermis: Stratum Spinosum (Prickly Layer)

Layers of the Epidermis: Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer)

Layers of the Epidermis: Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer)

Layers of the Epidermis: Stratum Corneum (Horny Layer)


Cells are typically those found in any connective tissue proper:

Fibers in _______________________ bind body together.

Contains _________________________ fibers; ___________________ vessels and ________________________ vessels.

The major potions of ______________________________, as well as oil and swear glands, derive from epidermal tissue but reside in the _______________________________.

Two layers of the dermis:



Layers of the Dermis: Papillary Layer

__________________________ connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels

Loose tissue:

Dermal papillae:

Most contain ____________________________ loops

Some contain Meissner's corpuscles (touch receptors)

Some contain free nerve endings (pain receptors)

In thick skin lie atop dermal ridges that cause epidermal ridges

Collectively ridges called friction ridges:




Layers of the Dermis: Reticular Layer

Approximately ____________% of dermal thickness

Dense fibrous connective tissue

Elastic fibers provide stretch-recoil properties

Collagen fibers



Cleavage lines because most collagen fibers parallel to skin surface




Flexure Lines

Dermal folds at or near ___________________________________

Dermis tightly secured to deeper structure.

Skin cannot slide easily for joint movement causing deep ______________________________.

Visible on hands, wrists, fingers, soles, toes

Other Skin Markings


Silvery-white scars


Extreme stretching causes dermal tears


From acute, short-term trauma

Fluid-filled pocket that separates ________________________and ____________________________ layers

Skin Color

Three pigments contribute to skin color:

1. _________________________________________________________________

2. _________________________________________________________________

3. _________________________________________________________________


Two forms

__________________________________________ to _________________________________________

Color differences due to _________________________________and __________________________________

Produced in melanocytes

Same relative number in all people

Migrates to keratinocytes to form "________________________________________" for nuclei

Freckles and pigmented moles

Local _______________________________ of melanin

Sun exposure stimulates melanin production

Sunspots (________________________________________) are fungal infection; not related to melanin


___________________________ to _________________________ pigment

Most obvious in palms and soles

Accumulates in stratum corneum and hypodermis

Can be converted to __________________________ for vision and epidermal health

Yellowish-tinge of some asians carotene and melanin variation.


________________________ hue of fair skin

Skin Color in Diagnosis



Erythema (redness)


Pallor (blanching)


Jaundice (yellow cast)






Appendages of the Skin (pp. 157162; Figs. 5.55.7)

Derivatives of the epidermis (skin appendages:





Hairs and Hair Follicles

Functions include:





Structure of a hair

Hair, or pili are flexible strands produced by hair follicles and consist largely of dead ____________________________cells of hard keratin.

Not in ________________________, _______________________, ________________________,

____________________, portions of _________________________________________.

The hard keratin that dominates the hairs and nails has two advantages over the soft keratin found in typical epidermal cells:



The main regions of a hair are the ________________________, which projects from the

skin, and the ______________________, which embeds in the skin.

Hair has three layers of keratinized cells: the inner core is the

____________________________, the middle layer is the ________________________, and the outer

layer is the _________________________.

Hair pigments (melanins of different colors) are made by ______________________________

at the base of the hair follicle.

_______________________________ (yellow, rust, brown, black); ________________________ in red hair.

Gray/white hair: ____________________________melanin production, increased air bubbles in shaft.

Structure of a Hair Follicle

Hair follicles fold down from the ________________________into the ___________________ and occasionally into the ___________________________.

The deep end of a hair follicle is expanded, forming a ____________________________,

which is surrounded by sensory nerve endings called a ____________________

receptor, or root hair_____________________________.

A hair _____________________, a nipple-like bit of dermal tissue, protrudes into the hair bulb. This ______________________ contains a knot of capillaries that supplies nutrients to growing hair and signals it to grow.

The wall of a hair follicle is composed of an outer ___________________________________ sheath, a thickened basement membrane, and an inner epithelial root sheath.

The hair ____________________________ within the hair bulb is a group of actively di