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Transcript of DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND · Web viewSingle line diagram of 220kV/132kV/33kV substation5...

MONITORING AND OPERATION OF 220kV/132kV

SUBSTATION

A Project Report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements

For the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERINGby

P.NAGARJUNA REDDY (07281A0241)

MOMD.ZUBAIR (07281A0211)

S.TILAK (07281A0258)

Under the esteemed guidance of Mr.S VIGNESHWAR Asst.Professor

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

KAMALA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

(Affiliated to J.N.T.U, Hyderabad)

Singapur, Karimnagar-505468

KAMALA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE

(Recognized by A.I.C.T.E)

(Affiliated to J.N.T.U, Hyderabad)

Singapur, Huzurabad, Karimnagar-505468

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that this project work entitled MONITORING AND OPERATION OF 220kV/132kV SUBSTATION Warangal, Mulugu road is the bonafide work carried out by P.NAGARJUNA REDDY(07281A0241), MOMD.ZUBAIR(07281A0211), S.TILAK(07281A0258) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of technology in Electrical & Electronics Engineering students of final year B.Tech., EEE Engineering (2007-2011) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of B.Tech. Of the JNTU, HYDERABAD

PROJECT GUIDEHEAD OF DEPARTMENT

S.VIGNESHWAR Y.Y PUNDLIK

(Asst. Professor) (Assoc. Professor)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We wish to express our sincere thanks to our Project Guide Mr. S. VIGNESHWAR for having been a source of constant inspiration, valuable guidance and generous assistance throughout the period of our project work under his guidance.

We express our sincere gratitude to our, Sri YOGESH.Y.PUNDLIK, Head of dept of ELECTRICAL & ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING, for having been a source of constant inspiration, valuable guidance and generous assistance throughout the period of our project work. We deem it as a privilege to have worked under his able guidance.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to our Principal, Dr. K. SHANKAR, for providing the college facilities for completion of the project.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to Sri T.RAJESHWAR RAO(A.D,MRT), who granted permission to perform this project under the guidance of P.SANDEEP(A.E,MRT) and also Mrs. SAJINI(A.E,TL&SS), who took active part in completion of this project.

We express our gratitude for the encouraging remarks and valuable guide lines to all the members of the Project Evaluation Committee.

Finally, we would like to thank all the faculty members, supporting staff of the Department of EEE and friends for their cooperation and valuable help for completing this project.

Project associates

P.NAGARJUNA REDDY (07281A0241)

MOMD.ZUBAIR (07281A0211)

S.TILAK (07281A0258)

CONTENTS Page No

ABSTRACT1

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION2

1.1 What is substation2

1.2 Classification of substations

1.3 220kV/132kV/33kV substation in Warangal3

1.4 Single line diagram of 220kV/132kV/33kV substation5

CHAPTER-2 MAJOR EQUIPMENTS USED IN SUBSTATION6

2.1Transformer62.1.1Introduction62.1.2Principle and constructional features of transformer72.1.3Name details of transformer102.1.4Transformer accessories132.1.5Dissolved gas analysis (DGA)162.1.6Norms of protection for transformer172.1.7Instrument transformer introduction182.1.8current transformer and its specifications182.1.9current voltage transformer222.2Energy meter232.2.1Introduction232.2.2Procedure for energy meter testing242.2.3energy meter testing results272.3Auxiliary AC and DC power supply 282.4Battery room 292.4.1battery charger292.4.2Theorey of operation of float charger322.4.3Theorey operation boost charger 33

CHAPTER-3TYPES OF BUSBAR CONNECTIONS36

3.1Introduction363.2Single bus 363.3Double bus with double breaker 373.4 Inspection bus383.5Double bus with single breaker393.6Ring bus403.7Breaker and a half bus41

CHAPTER-4PROTECTION EQUIPMENT USED IN SUBSTATION42

4.1Circuit breakers434.1.1Introduction434.1.2Operation of circuit breaker444.1.3 Different techniques used to extinguishes the arc454.1.4Arc interruption of circuit breaker464.1.5Air-blast circuit breakers474.1.6SF6 circuit breakers474.1.7Vacuum circuit breakers494.1.8Advantages of circuit SF6 circuit breaker494.2Lightening arrester504.3Wave trap524.4Protective relays524.4.1Introduction524.4.2The basic requirement s for the relay534.4.3Distance relay principle544.4.4Types of distance relays544.4.5 Applications of distances relays584.5Substation earthing60

CHAPTER-5SUMMARY AND CONCLUSSIONS62

5.1Summary625.2Conclusions

REFERENCES63

ABSTRACT

Now a days everything is depending up on the power. So give the reliable supply to the consumers. In distribution systems one of the major parts is "SUBSTATIONS".

An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity, Generation, Transmission and distribution systems where the voltage is transformed from high to low or reverse using the transformers .Electric power may flow through several substations between generating plant and consumer and may be changed in different voltage levels .the equipment used in substation are Transformer, Lightening arresters, isolator, bus bar, protective devices, Battery charger, earth switches, earth rods. So for of supply the regular maintenance and checking is necessary from that we conclude weather it is suitable or not for the desired operation.

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 What is substation?

An electrical substation is a subsidiary station of an electricity generation, transmission and distribution system where voltage is transformed high to low or the reverse using transformers. Electric power may flow through several substations between generation plant and consumer, and may be changed in voltage in several steps.

The main equipment used in substation are transformers lighting arresters, Circuit breakers PLCC, isolators, bus bars, protective relays, Battery charger, earth switches, earth rods.

1.2 Classification of substations

Classification of substations based on

(1) Service requirements

(2) Constructional features

1. According to service requirements: According to service requirements substations are classified into:

i. Transformer Substations

ii. Switching Substations

iii. Power factor correction substations

iv. Frequency changer substations

v. Converting substations

vi. Industrial substations

2. According to construction features: According to constructional features substations are classified as;

i. Indoor substations

ii. Outdoor substations

iii. Underground substations

iv. Pole mounted substations

1.3 220/132/33 kv sub-station warangal

There are four incoming feeders named as B.pad-2, RSS-1 (Nagaram), RSS-2.There are six 132 KV incoming feeders connected to 132 KV bus. There are 33 KV out going feeders connected 33KV bus. There are three 220/132 KV power transformers and two 132/33 power transformer

Lighting arrestors is placed at the starting point of every feeder to every phase of the line. Capacitive voltage transformer (CVT) follows the lightning arresters .Wave trap is placed next to the CVT for collecting communication signals at higher frequencies

Earth switch is there to transfer the induced voltage on the line when the isolator is open. Then there is an isolator to open the line under maintenance. There is a current transformer to step down the currents to the lower values for the purpose of protection and metering .Next to CT circuit breaker is placed which functions under fault counditions.Then there is a another isolator.

There is 220 KV bus with large size conductors. The bus is very important in the substation. The incoming feeders are connected to it through the control devices. There is an isolator followed by a high voltage 220 KV circuit breaker. Then 220 KV feeders are connected to primary side of power transformer through an isolatar.There are three power transformers of each 100 MVA, 220/132 KV Size.

The output is taken from the LV side of the transformer and connected to 132 KV bus bar through the protecting devices. From every protecting control device cables are connevted to the control center where the continuous monitoring and controlling is done through and relay panel.

Five outgoing feeders are taken out from the 132 KV bus and transmitted the power at lower voltage to the 132/33 KV substations which are located nearby load center.

CHAPTER-2

MAJOR EQUIPMENTS USED IN SUBSTATON

2.1 TRANSFORMERS

2.1.1 Transformer introduction

Transformers are static piece of apparatus by means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed to electric power of the same frequency in another circuit. It can raise or lower the voltage in a circuit but with a corresponding decrease or increase in current.

Transformers employed in a substation are

1. Power transformers

2. Instrument transformers

a) Current transformer