Demystified Series - · PDF fileDemystified Series Accounting Demystified Advanced Calculus...

download Demystified Series - · PDF fileDemystified Series Accounting Demystified Advanced Calculus Demystified Advanced Physics Demystified Advanced Statistics Demystified Algebra Demystified

If you can't read please download the document

  • date post

  • Category


  • view

  • download


Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Demystified Series - · PDF fileDemystified Series Accounting Demystified Advanced Calculus...

  • Demystified Series

    Accounting DemystifiedAdvanced Calculus DemystifiedAdvanced Physics DemystifiedAdvanced Statistics DemystifiedAlgebra DemystifiedAlternative Energy DemystifiedAnatomy DemystifiedAstronomy DemystifiedAudio DemystifiedBiochemistry DemystifiedBiology DemystifiedBiotechnology DemystifiedBusiness Calculus DemystifiedBusiness Math DemystifiedBusiness Statistics DemystifiedC++ DemystifiedCalculus DemystifiedChemistry DemystifiedCircuit Analysis DemystifiedCollege Algebra DemystifiedComplex Variables DemystifiedCorporate Finance DemystifiedDatabases DemystifiedDiabetes DemystifiedDifferential Equations DemystifiedDigital Electronics DemystifiedDiscrete Mathematics DemystifiedEarth Science DemystifiedElectricity DemystifiedElectronics DemystifiedEngineering Statistics DemystifiedEnvironmental Science DemystifiedEveryday Math Demystified Fertility DemystifiedFinancial Planning DemystifiedForensics DemystifiedFrench DemystifiedGenetics DemystifiedGeometry DemystifiedGerman DemystifiedGlobal Warming and Climate Change DemystifiedHedge Funds DemystifiedInvesting DemystifiedItalian DemystifiedJava Demystified

    JavaScript DemystifiedLean Six Sigma DemystifiedLinear Algebra DemystifiedMacroeconomics DemystifiedManagement Accounting DemystifiedMath Proofs DemystifiedMath Word Problems DemystifiedMATLAB DemystifiedMedical Billing and Coding DemystifiedMedical Charting DemystifiedMedical-Surgical Nursing DemystifiedMedical Terminology DemystifiedMeteorology DemystifiedMicrobiology DemystifiedMicroeconomics DemystifiedNanotechnology DemystifiedNurse Management DemystifiedOOP DemystifiedOptions DemystifiedOrganic Chemistry DemystifiedPharmacology DemystifiedPhysics DemystifiedPhysiology DemystifiedPre-Algebra DemystifiedPrecalculus DemystifiedProbability DemystifiedProject Management DemystifiedPsychology DemystifiedQuantum Field Theory DemystifiedQuantum Mechanics DemystifiedReal Estate Math DemystifiedRelativity DemystifiedRobotics DemystifiedSales Management DemystifiedSignals and Systems DemystifiedSix Sigma DemystifiedSpanish DemystifiedSQL DemystifiedStatics and Dynamics DemystifiedStatistics DemystifiedString Theory DemystifiedTechnical Analysis DemystifiedTechnical Math DemystifiedTrigonometry DemystifiedVitamins and Minerals Demystified

  • String Theory Demystifi ed

    David McMahon

    New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon LondonMadrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan

    Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto

  • Copyright 2009 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Exceptas permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any formor by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher.


    The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-149870-2.

    All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention ofinfringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps.

    McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporatetraining programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at or (212)904-4069.


    This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (McGraw-Hill) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to thework. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store andretrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative worksbased upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hills prior con-sent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your rightto use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms.

    THE WORK IS PROVIDED AS IS. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIESAS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THEWORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTH-ERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that itsoperation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no respon-sibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licen-sors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inabilityto use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply toany claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise.

    DOI: 10.1036/0071498702

  • We hope you enjoy thisMcGraw-Hill eBook! If

    youd like more information about this book,its author, or related books and websites,please click here.


    Want to learn more?


    Preface xi

    CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1A Quick Overview of General Relativity 2A Quick Primer on Quantum Theory 3The Standard Model 8Quantizing the Gravitational Field 8Some Basic Analysis in String Theory 10Unifi cation and Fundamental Constants 11String Theory Overview 12Summary 18Quiz 18

    CHAPTER 2 The Classical String I: Equations of Motion 21The Relativistic Point Particle 22Strings in Space-Time 28Equations of Motion for the String 32The Polyakov Action 36Mathematical Aside: The Euler Characteristic 36Light-Cone Coordinates 39Solutions of the Wave Equation 43Open Strings with Free Endpoints 44Closed Strings 46

    For more information about this title, click here

  • Open Strings with Fixed Endpoints 47Poisson Brackets 49Quiz 49

    CHAPTER 3 The Classical String II: Symmetries and Worldsheet Currents 51

    The Energy-Momentum Tensor 52Symmetries of the Polyakov Action 53Transforming to a Flat Worldsheet Metric 59Conserved Currents from Poincar Invariance 63The Hamiltonian 67Summary 67Quiz 67

    CHAPTER 4 String Quantization 69Covariant Quantization 70Light-Cone Quantization 85Summary 87Quiz 87

    CHAPTER 5 Conformal Field Theory Part I 89The Role of Conformal Field Theory

    in String Theory 92Wick Rotations 93Complex Coordinates 94Generators of Conformal Transformations 98The Two-Dimensional Conformal Group 100Central Extension 104Closed String Conformal Field Theory 105Wick Expansion 107Operator Product Expansion 110Summary 114Quiz 114

    CHAPTER 6 BRST Quantization 115BRST Operators and Introductory Remarks 116BRST-Invariant States 118

    vi String Theory Demystifi ed

  • BRST in String Theory-CFT 120BRST Transformations 121No-Ghost Theorem 125Summary 125Quiz 126

    CHAPTER 7 RNS Superstrings 127The Superstring Action 128Conserved Currents 133The Energy-Momentum Tensor 136Mode Expansions and Boundary Conditions 140Super-Virasoro Generators 143Canonical Quantization 144The Super-Virasoro Algebra 145The Open String Spectrum 147GSO Projection 148Critical Dimension 149Summary 150Quiz 150

    CHAPTER 8 Compactifi cation and T-Duality 153Compactifi cation of the 25th Dimension 153Modifi ed Mass Spectrum 155T-Duality for Closed Strings 159Open Strings and T-Duality 162D-Branes 164Summary 165Quiz 165

    CHAPTER 9 Superstring Theory Continued 167Superspace and Superfi elds 168Superfi eld for Worldsheet Supersymmetry 171Grassman Integration 173A Manifestly Supersymmetric Action 174The Green-Schwarz Action 175Space-Time Supersymmetry and Strings 180

    Contents vii

  • Light-Cone Gauge 181Canonical Quantization 184Summary 185Quiz 186

    CHAPTER 10 A Summary of Superstring Theory 187A Summary of Superstring Theory 187Superstring Theory 190Dualities 192Quiz 193

    CHAPTER 11 Type II String Theories 195The R and NS Sectors 195The Spin Field 200Type II A String Theory 201Type II B Theory 203The Massless Spectrum of Different Sectors 203Summary 204Quiz 205

    CHAPTER 12 Heterotic String Theory 207The Action for SO(32) Theory 208Quantization of SO(32) Theory 209The Spectrum 214Compactifi cation and Quantized Momentum 216Summary 219Quiz 219

    CHAPTER 13 D-Branes 221The Space-Time Arena 223Quantization 225D-Branes in Superstring Theory 230Multiple D-Branes 230Tachyons and D-Brane Decay 235Summary 237Quiz 237

    viii String Theory Demystifi ed

  • CHAPTER 14 Black Holes 239Black Holes in General Relativity 240Charged Black Holes 243The Laws of Black Hole Mechanics 246Computing the Temperature of a Black Hole 247Entropy Calculations for Black Holes

    with String Theory 249Summary 253Quiz 253

    CHAPTER 15 The Holographic Principle