De nitions of Disturbance, Resilience and Robustness .Report IB 112-2012/28 release 0.07 De nitions

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  • Copyright c 2012, DLR, Institute of Flight Guidance, GermanyGluchshenko, O., 2012,

    Definitions of Disturbance, Resilience and

    Robustness in ATM Context, DLR Report IB 112-2012/28, release 0.07

    Definitions of Disturbance, Resilience and Robustnessin ATM Context

    Olga GluchshenkoGerman Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Flight Guidance,

    Lilienthalplatz 7, D-38108 Braunschweig, Germanye-mail: olga.gluchshenko@dlr.de

    Abstract

    Resilience is a fundamental property of the natural ecosystem that enables quickrecovery after numerous disturbances occurring frequently. This vital ability of theecosystem makes resilience a very desirable property of man-made socio-technicalsystems, one of which is an ATM System. In ecology and in other domains there area lot of definitions and interpretations of the term resilience. Most of them fall intotwo big groups with semantical meanings

    resilience and

    robustness. Currently in

    the ATM Context exists a definition of resilience from the safety science perspectiveonly. Since we investigate resilience of an ATM System from the more general -performance point of view, which includes safety with performance aspects, it isnecessary to develop conceptual definitions of resilience and robustness of an ATMSystem, which have a clear differentiation between these terms and enable theirmeasurement.

    The aim of this report is to give a short description of the developed framework,which incorporates created concept of robustness, resilience and relevant terms: dis-turbance, stress and perturbation. The developed framework is illustrated with onesimple example and is accomplished with an according decision-making chain. Thereport also suggests some qualitative and quantitative measures of resilience and ro-bustness and provides a structured approach for investigation of these properties ofa system. In spite of the fact, that the concept is developed in the ATM Context, itis transferable and can be used for any socio-technical system.

    Keywords: resilience, robustness, disturbance, stress, perturbation, ATM Sys-tem

    1 Introduction

    The term resilience was first introduced by Hoffman [6] in 1948 in the field of mechan-ics and material testing. Holling [7] has proposed one decade later the term in ecology.Currently the concept of resilience is one of the most interesting and important research

    *This work is supported by the European FP7 ProjectResilience2050

    funded through the FP7 AAT Call 5, topic AAT.2012.6.2-4. See

    http://cordis.europa.eu/projects/rcn/103782_en.html

    Page 1

    http://cordis.europa.eu/projects/rcn/103782_en.html

  • ReportIB 112-2012/28release 0.07

    Definitions of Disturbance, Resilienceand Robustness in ATM Context

    topics. Up to the present time several thousand papers and books have been published onresilience in different research domains. In ecology there are, for instance, two definitionsof resilience, which exist in parallel. There resilience is considered either

    1. asthe time required for a system to return to an equilibrium or steady-state following

    a perturbation [11], [5] - this definition of resilience has been termed asengineering

    resilience by Holling [8], [5]

    or

    2. asthe ability of a system to absorb changes of state variables, driving variables,

    and parameters, and still persist [7] or asthe capacity of a system to absorb

    disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially thesame function, structure, identity, and feedbacks [14] - has been named

    ecological

    resilience [8], [5].

    The first definition assumes the persistence of single or global equilibrium or stable statewhile the second sets multiple equilibrium/stable states.

    Oxford Dictionary [10] gives the following definitions of the termsresilient and

    ro-

    bust:resilient (adjective)

    (of a substance or object) able to recoil or spring back into shape after bending,stretching, or being compressed;

    (of a person or animal) able to withstand or recover quickly from difficult conditions;

    robust (adjective)

    (of an object) sturdy in construction;

    strong and healthy; vigorous;

    (of a system, organization, etc.) able to withstand or overcome adverse condi-tions;

    uncompromising and forceful;

    (of wine or food) strong and rich in flavor or smell.

    Hence,engineering resilience tends semantically to resilience and

    ecological resilience

    inclines to robustness. A well structured overview on robustness orecological resilience

    the reader can find in [1]. The terms resilience, robustness have been defined and redefinedmany times with different meanings in other domains. Table 1 provides a summary ofterms used in the synonymic sense we have found in the literature.

    Along with the termengineering resilience Hollnagel et al. [9] have introduced in 2006

    the concept ofresilience engineering in safety science, which investigates human and

    organizational aspects in the design of safety critical socio-technical systems.Resilience

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    Definitions of Disturbance, Resilienceand Robustness in ATM Context

    Table 1: Terms with similar meanings

    term robustness resilience

    used in synonymic resilience stabilitysense resistance recovery

    stability elasticity

    engineering is a paradigm for safety management that focuses on how to help peoplecope with complexity under pressure to achieve success [9]. 2007 EUROCONTROL haslaunched a project

    with the aim of understanding the new area of Resilience Engineering

    and its relevance to Air Traffic Management [3] from the safety science perspective. In theWhite Paper on Resilience Engineering for ATM EUROCONTROL has provided in 2009the following definition of resilience:

    Resilience is the intrinsic ability of a system to adjust

    its functioning prior to, during, or following changes and disturbances, so that it can sustainrequired operations under both expected and unexpected conditions [3]. It is the onlydefinition we have found in the ATM Context. Since we are concentrated on resilience ofthe performance of an ATM System, which includes safety with other performance aspects,the definition from a safety science perspective is not sufficient enough for this purpose.Because of the simultaneous existence of

    engineering resilience and

    ecological resilience

    and various interpretations of resilience and robustness in different research domains, it isnecessary to develop conceptual definitions of resilience and robustness of an ATM System,which have a clear differentiation between these terms and enable their measurement. Wedefine them according to the semantic meanings [10].

    Since the properties of resilience and robustness of a system are only visible in the caseof occurring disturbances, we need first a general definition of disturbance in the ATMContext. We have not found such a definition, but have discovered a very interestingpaper about ecological disturbance created by Rykiel [13], which illustrates a structuredapproach to define the terminology. The author of the paper considers disturbance as acause, while stress and perturbation as an effect triggered by the disturbance. We use thislogical background and two types of stress and perturbation in ecology in order to definedisturbance, stress and perturbation in the ATM Context.

    In spite of the fact, that the concept is developed in the ATM Context, it is transferableand can be used for any socio-technical system.

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    2 Concept of resilience and robustness of an (ATM)

    System

    2.1 Definitions

    In the general system theory the number of definitions of a system multiplies constantly -

    every second author proposes a new definition[4]. We consider the following definition

    of a system [2]:

    Definition 1. System is a framework of objects and relations with particular attributes.

    An ATM System (the whole ATM system or any of its subsystems, for instance, aplanning system, an airport etc.) can be characterized by:

    Specific purpose;

    Complex structures of components in space and time scales;

    Organization of patterns and processes by human with help of supporting tools;

    Dynamic, but insufficient flows of data and information;

    Change in system structure, organization and components over time (evolution);

    Non-linearity in patterns and processes;

    Scale in which system is defined and observed;

    Hierarchical structure;

    Stochastic influences on system.

    Hence, an ATM System is a complex hierarchical socio-technical system influenced byexternal and internal disturbances.

    In order to evaluate the work of a system, primarily performance indicators describinga state of the system and its reference state have to be specified.

    Definition 2. Current state of a system is defined by the current values of its perfor-mance indicators.

    Definition 3. Reference state of a system is the specified set of its performance indi-cators values. A reference state relative to the current state of the system can be either

    an actual reference state, when the current values of the performance indicators arein the specified set of performance indicators values

    or

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