(de Gruyter Textbook ) Wolf Schmid-Narratology_ an Introduction (de Gruyter Textbook) -De Gruyter...

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This book is a standard work for modern narrative theory. It provides a terminological and theoretical system of reference for future research. The author explains and discusses in detail problems of communication structure and entities of a narrative work, point of view, the relationship between narrator´s text and character´s text, narrativity and eventfulness, and narrative transformations of happenings.

Transcript of (de Gruyter Textbook ) Wolf Schmid-Narratology_ an Introduction (de Gruyter Textbook) -De Gruyter...

  • Narratology

  • Wolf Schmid

    NarratologyAn Introduction

    De Gruyter

  • Translated by Alexander Starritt

    ISBN 978-3-11-022631-7

    e-ISBN 978-3-11-022632-4

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Schmid, Wolf.[Narratologiia. English]Narratology : an introduction / by Wolf Schmid.

    p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.English translation of: Elemente der Narratologie, which is a German

    translation and expansion of the Russian work Narratologija (Moscow2003).

    ISBN 978-3-11-0226321-7 (alk. paper)1. Narration (Rhetoric) I. Title.PN212.S3413 2010808-dc22

    2010008423

    Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek

    The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie;detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.

    2010 Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, Berlin/New York

    Printing: AZ Druck und Datentechnik GmbH, Kempten Printed on acid-free paper

    Printed in Germany

    www.degruyter.com

  • Contents

    Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX I. Features of narrative in fiction

    1. Narrativity and eventfulness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 a) The classical and structuralist concepts of narrativity . . . . . . . . . . 1 b) Narration and description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 c) Mediated and mimetic narrative texts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 d) Events and eventfulness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 e) Tellability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 f) Eventfulness, interpretation, and context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 g) Historicity of eventfulness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 h) Temporal and non-temporal linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    2. Fictionality. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 a) Fiction and mimesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 b) The controversy about fictionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 c) Characteristic features of fictionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 d) Representation of other peoples inner worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 e) The fictive world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 f) Author communication and narrative communication. . . . . . . . . 32

    II. The entities in a narrative work 1. Model of communication levels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2. The abstract author. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    a) Concrete and abstract entities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 b) History of the abstract author concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 c) Critique of the abstract author concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 d) For and against the abstract author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 e) Two attempts to split the abstract author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 f) Sketch of a systematic definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

    3. The abstract reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 a) The abstract reader as an attribute of the abstract author. . . . . . 51 b) History of the abstract reader concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 c) Definition of the abstract reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 d) Presumed addressee and ideal recipient. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 e) Critique of the ideal recipient concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

  • VI Contents

    4. The fictive narrator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 a) Explicit and implicit representation of the narrator . . . . . . . . . . . 58 b) Individuality and anthropomorphism of the narrator . . . . . . . . . . 60 c) The narrators markedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 d) Abstract author or narrator? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 e) Typologies of the narrator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 f) Primary, secondary, and tertiary narrators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 g) Diegetic and non-diegetic narrators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 h) Types of diegetic narrators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 i) Narrating and narrated self. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    5. The fictive reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 a) Fictive addressee and fictive recipient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 b) Fictive and abstract reader . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 c) Explicit and implicit representation of the fictive reader . . . . . . 81 d) Narration with a sidelong glance at the fictive reader

    (A Raw Youth) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 e) Dialogic narrative monologue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

    III. Point of view 1. Theories of point of view, perspective, and focalization . . . . . . . . . . 89

    a) F. K. Stanzel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 b) G. Genette and M. Bal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 c) B. A. Uspensky, J. Lintvelt, and Sh. Rimmon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

    2. A model of narrative point of view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 a) The happenings as the object of point of view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 b) Comprehension and representation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 c) The parameters of point of view. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 d) Narratorial and figural point of view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 e) Point of view in diegetic narrative (The Shot). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 f) Narratorial and figural manifestations in the five parameters of

    point of view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 g) Compact and diffuse points of view . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 h) On the methods of analysis: three central questions . . . . . . . . . . . 117

    IV. Narrators text and characters text 1. The two components of the narrative text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

    a) Narrators discourse and characters discourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 b) The characters discourse in the narrative text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 c) Narrators discourse and narrators text, characters discourse

    and characters text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 2. Ornamental prose and skaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

    a) Ornamental prose. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

  • Contents VII

    b) The skaz: definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 c) The skaz: history of research (B. Eikhenbaum, Yu. Tynyanov,

    V. Vinogradov, M. Bakhtin). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 d) Characterizing and ornamental skaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 e) Features of characterizing skaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 f) Ornamental skaz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

    3. The interference of narrators text and characters text. . . . . . . . . . . . 137 a) The structure of text interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 b) The opposition of the texts and their features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 c) The pure texts and the neutralization of oppositions . . . . . . . . . . 143 d) Text interference as a transformation of the characters text . . . 145 e) Direct discourse and direct interior monologue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 f) Quoted figural designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 g) Indirect representation of speech, thought, and perception . . . . 153 h) Autonomous indirect discourse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 i) Free indirect discourse (FID): definition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 j) FID in German, English, French, and Russian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 k) Free indirect perception. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .