Dana Cuff - Professor of Architecture and Urban Design: University of California, Los Angeles Jerry...
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- Dana Cuff - Professor of Architecture and Urban Design: University of California, Los Angeles Jerry Kang Professor of Law: University of California, Los Angeles Mark Hansen Associate Professor of Statistics: University of California, Los Angeles Communications of the ACM, March 2008/ Vol. 51, No.3 Presented By: Michael Wei
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- Outline Motivation for the paper Shift in sensing focus and arising concerns Structure and policy of data commons Future of the data commons
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- Shifting From Woods to City Sensing techniques in the reserve not scalable to urban setting New concerns arise from shift in sensing focus Mobile phones are the key sensor platform since it is not economical to deploy fixed sensors in an urban setting. New sensing model shift from full centralization to decentralized models and participatory sensing. James Reserve
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- Concerns Arising From Urban Sensing Biased and inaccurate data captured by amateur contributors using uncalibrated cheap equipment. Incorrect analysis done by unqualified users Solutions: 1) Distributed system will be able to detect inaccurate data based on multiple data points 2) Discussion forums (social data analysis) will prune out the incorrect analysis In other disciplines such as art or politics, data accuracy is not the most important objective.
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- Beyond Science: D-Tower in the Netherlands Blue = HappyRed = LoveGreen = Hate Yellow = Fear
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- The Data Commons Data Commons central data repository Data commons has 4 attributes that previously defined public sphere (physical realm): 1) Must be accessible to diverse members 2) Provide opportunity for multiple uses 3) Encourage exchange among participants 4) Be recognizable as data commons
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- Reasons for Data Commons People express values and participate in the community through political shopping, eating, and commuting. To enable these actions, people need access to the data commons to make an informed decision Subscribing to such participatory sensing is also a form of civic participation i.e. YouTube and presidential debates, placeblog
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- Building Data Commons Need to have some way to shape the growth of the data commons Will require legal, policy, and technological decisions to build a high quality data commons
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- Legal Implications Intellectual Property: - Copyrights only protect creative expressing, not underlying data - Dont want to create too stringent intellectual property rights because it might create an anticommons - It is too restricting to have every photo and data piece be copyrighted and have to ask for permission Liability: - There is a measure in the Childrens Decency Act that states that the intermediary parties are not liable for the content their users submit.
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- Policy - Privacy Information Privacy - an individuals claim to control how personal data is collected, distributed, and processed. Self surveillance people will want the information to be detached from themselves, not traceable. Network Solutions: Localization and Time synchronization resolution controls critical to privacy Privacy preferences are adaptive. The policy we implement now will have long term path dependent effects
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- Technology User Interface User interface determines whether a system will be utilized or not. Want to be able to easily upload, search, and share data Easy data discovery, subscription, and republication is crucial to data commons
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- The Fate of the Data Commons Existence of data commons by itself does not solve problems since the resource can be misused and under- realized Predict the future of the data commons by drawing on Greek Mythology
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- Sirens Seducing People Into Making Rash Decisions Urban sensing will illuminate some characteristics that might otherwise have not been seen such as ground water toxins or toxic waste sites. More information does not produce more rational choices. People might give attention to types of data than they really deserve. Ex: if data commons offers depictions of violent crime rates in the city, the information might persuade people to move to distant suburbs ignoring the mortality risk that increased highway driving brings. Relying on this data might cause a self-fulfilling prophecy where dangerous areas become even more dangerous Need to have disclosures or allow comments that deter hasty and misguided analysis
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- Cyclops Tragedy of Cyclops knowing the future and not being able to change it Example: Environmental sensors might allow people to see rapid environmental decline. Those who are lack political or financial clout might see their demise without any way to change it. Solution is to arbitrage our ignorance: Make predetermined decisions based on ignorance before the data is revealed.
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- Conclusion Sensing has clearly expanded to an urban setting which offers a new level of community interaction and information sharing. However, we need to make some clear decisions now in order to guide the growth of the data commons.
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- Questions? Comments?
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- References  Cuff, Dana, Mark Hansen, and Jerry Kang. Urban Sensing: Out of the Woods Communications of the ACM 51.3 (2008): 24-33.  Cyclops" Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 17April 2009, 17:28 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 19 April 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siren  D-Tower Nox Arcspace.13 Feb. 2006, 19 April 2009