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Transcript of Daily News Simplified - DNS ... 2019/12/16  · 5 Ajanta and Ellora Caves 07 Dated: 16....

  • Daily News Simplified - DNS

    16 12 19


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    1 No deal as longest climate talks end 01

    2 Maternity scheme exclusionary, need benefits for all 05

    3 Running low on gas- Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana 11

    4 Mallakhamba 07

    5 Ajanta and Ellora Caves 07

  • Dated: 16. Dec. 2019 DNS Notes - Revision

    Title 1. No deal as longest climate talks end (Page 01)

    Syllabus Mains: GS Paper III: Environment

    Theme Climate Change Talks

    Highlights Article 6 of Paris Climate Deal relates to developing of market and non-market-based approaches to mitigation of greenhouse emissions. Salient Features of Article 6 of Paris Climate Deal: Market Mechanisms

    • Some countries choose to pursue voluntary cooperation in the implementation of their NDCs to

    • allow for higher ambition in their mitigation and adaptation actions and to promote sustainable

    • development and environmental integrity.

    • The use international transferred mitigation outcomes shall apply robust accounting to ensure

    • the avoidance of double counting. Emissions resulting from this mechanism shall not be used to

    • demonstrate achievement of host Party’s NDCs if used by another Party to demonstrate

    • achievement of its NDCs.

    • Use of internationally transferred mitigation outcomes to achieve the NDCs shall be voluntary

    • and authorized by participating Parties. The mechanism shall aim to:

    • Promote the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions while fostering sustainable development

    • Incentivize and facilitate participation in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by public and private entities

    • Contribute to the reduction of emission levels in the host Party, which will benefit from mitigation activities resulting in emission reductions that can also be used by another Party to fulfil its NDCs.

    • Deliver an overall mitigation in global emissions. Non-Market Mechanisms Development of Integrated, holistic and balanced non-markets approach to be developed to assist in the implementation of their nationally determined contributions. There approaches shall aim to o Promote mitigation and adaptation ambition o Enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation of the NDCs o Enable opportunities for coordination across instruments and relevant institutional arrangements. The issue of framing rules for setting up a new carbon market under the Paris Agreement was deferred entirely to next year. Reasons for failure: 1) Attitude of US: USA had decided to pull out of the Paris Climate deal. It will be ceased to be member from the November 2020. 2) Accounting for climate finance, reporting standards and management of past carbon credits during the Kyoto period. 3) Developed countries failure to provide adequate funding and technology transfer to developing countries. Compensation for Loss and Damage: There has been a demand from developing countries fixing liability for damages caused by rising temperatures. There is a demand for compensation for the losses that developing countries incur due to changes in climate. However, there was no agreement on this issue as well due to resistance from developed countries principally USA. Agreement of Gender: One of the achievements of this COP was agreement on enhanced gender action plan. Gender item is not a problem of women but all of humanity. Strengthen the role and empowerment of women. Gender Action Plan sets out in five priority areas 1) Capacity building, knowledge management and communication: 2) Gender balance, participation and women’s leadership

  • Dated: 16. Dec. 2019 DNS Notes - Revision

    3) Coherence 4) Gender-responsive implementation and means of implementation 5) Monitoring and reporting Enhanced Action: Paris Climate Deal aims at avoiding a temperature increase of more than 1.5 Celsius by the end of the Century. So far, the world is on course for a 3 to 4-degree Celsius rise, with potentially catastrophic consequences. There was expectation from all countries to increase their climate actions in view of recent scientific assessments that show that the world was not doing enough to prevent the extreme impacts of climate change. Some countries, especially the most vulnerable ones like the small island states, were pushing for language directing all countries to update their climate action plans by next year to reflect new realities. Such demands were resisted mainly by big developing countries like China, India and Brazil, which had been arguing that countries be asked to deliver on their past and current promises before being asked to make any new commitments. These developing countries pointed out that current situation was a direct result of developed countries not meeting their targets in the pre-2020 period. They have demanded an assessment of the performance of developed countries on climate action, including their obligation to provide finance and technology to the developing world. Final Call of the COP 25 called Chile Madrid Time for Action emphasized on: 1) Urgency of enhanced ambition by all countries. However, there was no direction to update climate action plans by next year. 2) The demand of the developing countries for setting up a two-year work program to assess the performance of developed countries, was also not included in the final agreement. 3) The special reports of IPCC brought out this year a. Climate Change and Land b. The Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate Were also not mentioned in the final agreement. There was only appreciation and gratitude to the IPCC for coming out with the two special reports.

  • Dated: 16. Dec. 2019 DNS Notes - Revision

    Personal Notes

  • Dated: 16. Dec. 2019 DNS Notes - Revision

    Title 2. Maternity scheme exclusionary, need benefits for all (The Hindu Page 05)

    Syllabus Mains: GS Paper II: Social Issues

    Theme Critique of PMMVY

    Highlights Context:

    • In 2016, the Government had launched Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) as a conditional cash transfer scheme for the benefit of pregnant and lactating mothers.

    • However, this article highlights that this scheme is non-supportive and exclusionary in nature and hence has failed to provide optimum benefits to the targeted beneficiaries.

    About Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY) Objective: Provide Maternity benefit in form of cash transfer to compensate the wage loss to the women during childbirth and childcare Benefits: Conditional cash transfer of Rs 5,000 for the birth of first child. (The remaining cash incentive of up to Rs 1,000 is to be given under a separate scheme called the Janani Suraksha Yojana) Eligible Beneficiaries: Available to all Pregnant Women & Lactating Mothers (PW&LM) except those in regular employment with the Central Government or State Government or Public Sector Undertaking. Conditionalities imposed: The amount is disturbed in three instalments upon meeting several conditionalities — registration of pregnancy, at least one ante-natal check-up, registration of childbirth and vaccinations. Implementation Agency: Ministry of Women and Child Development.

    Flaws in the Scheme Exclusionary in nature: • The benefits are available only for the birth of the first child and does not cover

    subsequent births. • Registration for the scheme requires an applicant to provide her husband’s Aadhaar

    details along with her own, affecting single women which include unwed mothers, deserted wives and widows.

    • A mother seeking benefits needs to provide proof of address of her marital home, which proves challenging for a newlywed expecting a child. This is because often such women reside in their natal home during pregnancy.

    • The minimum age of the women to be eligible under the scheme is 19 years and hence excludes the women who may have got married before the age of 18. It is being said that almost 30-35% of the fist-time mothers are under the age of 18 years and hence are excluded under the scheme.

    Cumbersome process • The application process involved in the scheme is considered to be prohibitive in nature. A

    total of 6 application forms consisting of around 30 pages need to be filled by the beneficiaries.

    • Further, as many 9 IDs need to be produced such as Aadhaar Card of the husband and Wife, Voter ID Card, Ration card, Passbook etc.

    Unambitious Government Targets The Government has set before itself a target of covering 53 lakh women every year. However, the Government's target is only around 43% of the total 123 lakh first births in India in a year. Way Forward There is an urgent need for undertaking review of the scheme and make it more inclusive by removing restrictions on the number of children and including unwed mothers, deserted wives

  • Dated: 16. Dec. 2019 DNS Notes - Revision

    and widows. Further, the amount of money disbursed under the scheme should be at least par with the minimum wages.

    Personal Notes

  • Dated: 16. Dec. 2019 DNS Notes - Revision

    Title 3. Running low on gas- Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana (The Hindu Page 11)

    Syllabus Mains: GS Paper III – Indian Economy

    Theme Diversion of LPG Subsidies

    Highlights Context: The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) has highlighted cer