D-Giesbert Method for Baroque Lute Phillips Translation

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    An English Translation of Edition Schott 3638

    Schule fur die

    BarockLaute

    von

    F.J Giesbert

    This document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and madeavailable from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

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    Introduction

    ontrary to the recorder, which has become extremely popular again after havingbeen almost completely forgotten, the lute never completely vanished from thescene of music, especially from home use. The memories of the Queen of

    Instruments, loved by our ancestors above all, whose perfect forms appeared again and againon old paintings, reproduced by artists, who expressed their delight about the sweetness andmagic of the sound of the lute. There were many attempts to revive the music which touchesus from these paintings for our libraries have great holdings of lute music.

    CHowever, all attempts to revive the lute playing had to fail because two factors of decisiveimportance were overlooked: the instrument itself and the notation.

    he lute has been handed down to us, however, it has undergone changes whichmade it far different from the original instrument it was. These changes existmainly because over the times the lute had to fulfill different functions and sound

    ideals. The same evolution visible in the steps from the tender-stringed CLAVICHORD over

    the piano to the ironclad grand pianos also changed the original tenderstringed double courselute into the modern single course instruments with thick tightly stretched strings, strings whichsometimes have changed from gut to metal (steel) strings. J ust as it is impossible to create themagic of old clavichord music on a modern grand piano or to play a sonata for recorder on amodern flute, it is also impossible to express the beauty of old lute music on a modern lute:always something will be lost: the sensuous sound of the tone imagined by the composer.

    T

    hen the instrument was assimilated to the new sound ideals the old way ofnotation was also dropped: the tablature used over 400 years in the entire luteplaying world. The ancestors soon realized that the regular notation on a staff

    with five lines our modern way of notation was ill suited to a fingerboard instrument, wherethe same note could be played on several different strings and in many different positions andwhose tuning and stringing often had to vary in order to serve certain purposes. Tablature wasinvented to help the student and player to enable him to master and play a piece of music withthe least difficulties in the shortest possible time. What was more efficient than to notate thefingerings the player had to execute during the progress of a certain piece? What easier thanto indicate different strums and attacks with certain symbols? Hardly had the tablature beendeveloped and it began to influence the actual creation and form of music. Soon a unique lutestyle evolved which could no longer be written down in the regular mutation, without changingeven technically easy pieces into extremely difficult monstrosities on paper.

    W

    f we intend to rediscover the treasure of lute music we will only be able to do this ifwe again build our instruments true to the ways of our ancestors, if we string them

    the original way and if we play the music the way it was originally written to beplayed. To give help and instruction for this process is the purpose of this school.

    I

    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 2

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    Introduction - continued

    he exact drawing of a baroque lute provides complete information aboutconstruction, wood types and measurements of the instrument as well as thestring gauges and the frets. The drawing is based on the lute, built by Sixt

    Rauchwolf in 1577 for J akob Fugger, which I own. After comparison to masterpieces byTiefenbrucker, Frey, Maler and other masters we found almost total agreement of allmeasurements and wood types. The lute was modified in 1705 by Wenger in Augsburg. Hereplaced the angled tuning box (head piece) with a double theorbo tuning box so that thestringing could be increased to 13 courses without changing the neck. The neck measures 8cm at the saddle and 10 cm at the body.

    That is taught here is lute playing the way the old artist played. We paymeticulous attention to all rules and instructions they left us. The course ofinstructions follows the manner of an old lute teacher would have used to

    instruct his pupils. After introductory technical exercises we begin with easy suites and then

    the grade of difficulty of the selected pieces slowly increases. In between we have discussionof technical and harmony problems, chord diagrams on the fingerboard and rules of fingeringand plucking techniques.

    W

    ll historical pieces offered in this book are reproduced unchanged and true to theoriginal. The 80 solo pieces have been augmented by 59 exercises which dealwith technical aspects of fingering and attacks.A

    May this work help to regain the luteits old position in our musical life,

    F.J Giesbert

    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 3

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 4

    l

    First LevelContent Exercises No Pieces

    Tuning:

    Holding the lute

    Explanation of tablature

    Right hand/

    Attack techniques

    Positioning

    Supporting finger

    Indicating attackfinger

    1

    Simultaneous attack 18

    eft hand/

    es

    fingers

    ith the17

    19

    n/double

    34

    ory

    ds

    gs 36

    Rules for attack

    Symb. For attack

    |

    L

    Fingering techniqu

    Positioning 16 IThumb position

    Naming theFingering rule

    ( ) Barring w1. finger

    Pulling offlHammering o 24

    Chord the

    Reading chor 27

    Chord letters 27Moving chord forms 32

    Chord fingerin

    I. Thumb attack

    1. Diatonic walkingUpwards 1

    Downwards 2

    2. J umps/skips 4

    Down 4

    Up 5

    Both directions 5

    II. Attack with index and

    middle finger1. Neighboring strings

    simultaneously 12

    Following another 13Mixed 14

    2. Distant courseSimultaneously 15Following another 15

    II. Attack with 3 fingers

    1. Broken 25

    Accented ring fingerAccented index finger

    2. SimultaneouslyFollowing bass noteTogether with bassnote

    IV. Simultaneous attack withbass

    1. Melody 18

    2. Chords 25

    27

    Folktunes

    The Ducks 6

    The Poor Man 7

    Open the Door 8

    At the Head of My Rival 9

    The Wheat Cutter 10

    Parthie in F

    1. Pasterella 17

    2. Menuett I 22

    3. Menuett II 23

    4. Menuett/Air 24

    5. Gigue 26

    Parthie in d

    1. Entre 28

    2. Menuett 29

    3. Menuett 30

    4. Variatio 31

    Suite in C

    1. March 32

    2. Minuette 34

    3. Minuette 35

    4. Gigue 37

    .

    . .

    . ..

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 5

    Page 1 The entinstrum can also be built in form of a THEORBO, with 7 courses on thefingerboard, which must be 8 cm wide at the saddle and 10 cm wide at the body,in addition it should have 5 freely vibrating courses with a MENSUR of 95 cm.

    The numbers next to the frets determine the string gauge.

    The two lowest bass strings can be mounted on a separate rider.

    Page 7 Tuning of the LuteThe first problem the lute presents is tuning it. Let us look at the grouping of thestrings: they seem to fall into three groups, 2 singe strings, 3 pairs of stringsmade up of 2 equally gauged strings respectively and finally 8 string pairscontaining one thick and one thin string. The later are the 6 BASS COURSES containing one bass string and one OKTAVESTRING the first two groups formthe 5 PLAY-COURSES. A PLAYCOURSE therefore can be either a single stringor a pair of equally gauged strings. The lute is tuned as follows: (notes)

    The upper 6 courses are tuned to a d-minor chord, the followingBASSCOURSES descend step-wise the d-minor scale down to the KONTRA A.The highest course is equal to the lowest note on an ALTO RECORDER f thus still below a.The a can be reached by fingering the uppermost course on the e-fret. To besure, a course can be strummed empty, that is, without being fingered on thefingerboard or it can be shortened by a fret by pushing it down on thefingerboard. These different possibilities are put in order with the help of thealphabet:The empty course is designated a, fingering the first fret b, the second fret c, thethird fret d, etc. Each fret shortens the string by half a step. The TABLATURE,

    which is written lute music, does not designate the note but the fingering theplayer must execute in order to produce the desired tone. This is done verysimply in the following manner: each of the 6 upper courses which can befingered, the other lower courses can not be comfortably reached by the hand, isrepresented by a line, we thus have a system of 6 lines, of which the uppermostdesignates the highest course of the lute. On each of these lines is marked, whatis to be done with the respective course, whether it should be strummed empty orfingered on a certain fret. If nothing at all is marked, the course is not to beplayed at all. With a few examples, we can make everything clear:

    This means the highest course should be fingered on the e fret and strummedby the right hand, the rest of the strings should not be played at all.

    This means the third course should be played empty while the others remainsilent.

    This means the second course should be fingered on the d fret while the othersremain silent.

    _______

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 6

    Page 8 Let us now take up the lute and attempt to tune it. We site down and hold the lutin the same fashion as the lutist does in the picture by van Dyke: we cross ourlegs, left over right, then we rest the right lower arm about in the middlebangle, the correct resting position for the forearm is indicate

    Then we rest the little finger slightly on the top of the lute, next to t

    e

    etween elbow and wrist on the top of the lute, which is at about a 90 degreed on the drawing.

    he higheststring and close to the bridge. This position too is indicated on the drawing. Therm resting on the top which can be felt as a slight pressure

    rt of

    am).e are to finger the e-fret of the highest course and play it and tune the empty

    e same degree

    rse which is fingered at the d-fret. Furthermore: (diagram).

    e tuning

    nedss

    ersrse is marked

    by a slanted line above the letters, the

    d for themaining three bass courses. Thus if we play, beginning with the lowest bass

    tes: (diagram)

    problem: Which fingers of the right hand should be used to pluckwhich course? Is the choice open or are there rules? There is a rule, as follows.

    weight of the lower aon the left thigh is quite adequate to balance the lute and to inhibit any loweringof the neck, thus the left hand can move freely on the fingerboard. The suppothe little finger does not affect the lute but the strumming (plucking) hand.

    In order to tune our lute to a, we tune the e-fret to a tuning fork or the a of thepiano.* (If we intend to go easy on the strings we may tune the lute a whole steplower by using the g-fret.) The next practical instruction is as follows (diagrW

    third course to this note, since this string cannot be tightened to thas the highest, we tune it an octave lower. The next instructions are thefollowing: (diagram) We are to pluck the empty highest course and tune to thisnote the second couPlay the highest course empty and tune to this note the empty fourth course,then play the empty second course and tune to it the empty fifth course, finallythe same procedure for the third and sixth course. Again we sum up thprocedure for the upper six courses in this diagram (diagram).

    Each singe tuning process is separated from the next one by a barline. The firstshown letter is to be played first, the following letter is then to be tuned to the

    note produced first. In tuning the sixth course, the thin OCTAVE STRING istuned in unison with the empty third course while the heavier bass string is tuan octave lower. We follow exactly the same procedure when tuning the bacourses, the tuning instructions for which are as follows: (diagram).

    We notice that the bass courses are not indicated in a uniform way, butaccording to groups in different manners. This happens in order to keep thetablature system simple, to avoid confusion through too many lines. The lettfor the seventh course are indicated below the lines, the eighth cou

    Page 9 ninth course has two slanted lines and the tenth has three. After this the slantedlines are no longer used, instead the respective digits 4, 5, 6 are userecourse, one course after another going up the following tablature diagramoriginaAlready this first attempt to pluck the empty courses of the new tuned lutepresents a new

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 7

    Page 9 The upper four courses are played with the middle finger, all others are playedwith the thumb. If any other finger than the one prescribed by the rule issupposed to be used, there is a special sign indicating the finger under theThe signs are as follows:

    | Thumb

    Index finger

    Middle finger

    letter.

    e

    t

    in quick

    eer at the

    will

    Ring finger

    Therefore the thumb, being responsible for its nine courses must be trained tobecome most efficient and exact in switching from string to string, to be able toexecute skips over long and short distances quickly. Some practical exerciseswill be of great help. It is most important that the little finger remains always in thexact same position so that the thumb can get used to the various distances in

    relation to this fixed point. Only thus can the thumb gain the necessary exactnessand security.

    We lay the thumb on the bass string of the bass course 4, touching the string nowith the tip but the side of the thumb, we hold the other fingers so that the handlies slightly arched over the strings. After applying a slight pressure with thethumb, the course skips away from under it and the thumb comes to rest on thebass string of the next course. During this process we perceivesuccession first the tone of the bass string and then the tone of the octave string.Another quick pressure sounds the notes of the next bass course and lets thethumb fall on the next bass course. In this manner we guide the thumb toward

    the seventh course: (diagram of exercise)

    At the beginning of the tablature the beat is indicated. Above the first note we sa quarter note which indicates that all notes are to follow one anothedistance of a quarter note. If this distance is to be changed, another signindicate this. The whole note above the note of the second measure thereforemeans that the next note may only follow, after the time of one whole measurehas passed. The three dots at the end of the exercise indicate that the piece is tobe repeated.

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 8

    As long as the thumb moves stepwise from one string to the next, going ua slight pressure is enough to move it to the next highest course. However, if onewants to descend stepwiseeach time a little s

    having played it to thetaposition it must lift its

    Page 10 pward,

    from one string to another, the thumb must performkip, in order to descend from the course on which it rests after

    next lower course. The playing of the seventh coursekes the thumb to the sixth course, in order to play the eight course from thiself over the seventh course toward the eighth course.

    Exe ise in the described directionxe directions united in one exercise

    e

    bol indicates rhythm as well as an action to be performed by the

    Page 11

    s

    e. The index finger must be held

    Page 12

    r is indicated by a dot below the letter.Exercise 12: (diagram)Next we play the strings one after the other and pay attention that the attack isdone from the side of the fingertip without touching the neighbor strings. Coursesare treated like single strings, except that the attack must bring both strings of acourse into vibration.Exercise 13 (diagram)Now we combine both ways in Exercise 14 (diagram). If we now can master thesinge and broken attack of two courses which are not neighbors but separated bycourse in between, we are familiar with the main problems of the right hand.

    rcise 2: ExercE rcise 3: BothExercise 4: Stepwise upward, larger skips downward, changing duration of thnotesExercise 5: Constant duration of the notes, jumps up and downExercise 6: After the pre-exercises we can now attempt some

    7: Simple Folk tunes

    The symbol for rests is played by resting the thumb on the last played course.Since this symright hand, it is written half into the tablature system and half above it.

    Exercises 8-9 are more folk tunes, 10 is a melody that incorporates all the basscourses. 11 is a jump exercise for the thumb.Once the thumb feels fairly secure we can pay attention to the other fingers, theindex finger and the middle finger, the ring finger is for now left out, since it isonly used for chords. When a finger plucks a course the hand opens slightly andturns a little bit so that we can look into it when playing. The middle finger bend

    a bit more than the index finger when plucking a course so that both fingerstouch the respective string in the same placalmost stretched straight so that the thumb can pluck under it into the hollowhand. Neither finger attack the string with fingertip

    but with the lower edge of the fingertip.Exercise in plucking two courses next to one another:The ball of the middle finger rests on the fingernail of the index finger. Since therule designates the middle finger to play the upper four courses, the playing withthe index finge

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 9

    Page 13 Exercise 15 (diagram)

    eckrhand

    to be used:

    finger

    finger or plucko s school numbers are always used to indicate

    e fingers of the left hand (1.=first, 2.=second, 3.=third, 4.=fourth), while the

    e us one first five frets of the fingerboard. The letters used in the tablature have

    r, especially when several letters

    et string until it is pressed

    own onto the fret. The first two joints of the finger are totally straight so that theyed to indicate barring is ( ). This bar

    gram)

    Page 14racticed all the necessary

    fore an unbroken chord must now be played as an

    The left hand is used to shorten then strings. This done in the following manner,by arching the fingers slightly and pushing the string down upon the fingerboard(shortly behind the respective fret so that the string is allowed to vibrate freely upto that fret). The thumb rests under the neck about opposite to the middle of the

    hand, the thumb is slightly stretched toward the tuning box and touches the nonly with its top part. The hand is hollow and nowhere touches the neck, neitheshould the fingers touch the neck. Numbers indicate which finger of the leftis1, index finger2, middle finger3, ring finger4, littleNo number is used to indicate the thumb since it is never used toany string. F r the duration of thi

    thfingers of the right hand are always called by name (index finger, middle finger,ring finger, little finger).First of all we do some fingering exercises with the left hand to orientatthchanged slightly compared to the letters used in print, due to the limited spaceand because letters can never touch each otheon top of each other signify a chord. DIAGRAM of letters used in tablature(bottom) compared to letters used in regular print (top).Lets do some easy fingering exercises, always using the fingers indicated by thenumbers.

    Exercise 16 (diagram)The two neighboring c can also be fingered with one finger (barring) acrossboth strings. In this case the first finger pushed down the second string with thfingertip and then is lowered sideways upon the firsdlie flat on the fingerboard. The symbol usfingering is held for as long as the parenthesis last. (dia

    After these preparations we can attempt to master a little suite. The first piece the Pasterella is not very difficult since we already pfingerings. What was bearpeggio, the left hand still fingers chords and each chord is held until a newchord is indicated.

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 10

    FingeringRule:

    F-major (Exercise 17)6, 10, and 24 we see a vertical line between two letters. This is

    ine used between two very distant letters. It demands the pluckingse and a PLAY COURSE at the same time. In order to become

    ell versed in this manner of plucking, we use the followingPage 15

    e

    k of the thumb takes just a little bit more time than theck

    t thehand. The most simple

    st note is plucked by the right hand while the second, attached note is

    of the left hand. As the finger leaves the fret, it pushes

    It is a common rule that a finger remains as long on the fret is has fingered until itis necessary to change.In the following piece all measures except 6, 10, and 24 are made up of only one

    chord. This chord is fingered at the beginning of the measure and heldthroughout the complete measure. At the beginning of the next measure thefingering changes to a new chord.

    1.) Pasterella inIn the measuresa connecting lof a bass courwexercise on the empty strings (Here the pressure resulting from the attack of thethumb is used at the moment of attack for the attack of the finger. The attack of

    the thumb is much more a slight pressure than a plucking, since contrary to thfingers the attack does not come from above: the thumb does already rest onthe string. Thus the attacattack of a finger, therefore the thumb must start just a little bit earlier if the attais to come at the same time with the attack of the finger ).Exercise 18 (diagram)In the following Menuett we have opportunity to apply the procedure just learned.We also see a new symbol, an arch under two letters. This arch means thasecond connected letter is to be pulled off by the leftform of this PULLING OFF is from the b or e fret to the empty string. Hereonly the fir

    produced by the finger theedcourse a bit to the side thus putting it into vibration, the string may not be pluck

    * pull ? us

    ple

    One can PULL-OFF not only onto an empty string but also onto another fret

    xist:are

    the first and third or the second and forth fingers (ONE fret).Page 16 short exercise may help us to remember: Exercise 20 (diagram)Page 16*appagiet A quickly executed PULL-OFF has the effect of a gracenote from above. The

    sign for this gracenote * is an apostrophe () following the letter. PULL-OFF asgracenotes are fingered with the same fingering as those written out, they aresimply played faster. Only the upper letter is plucked and the lower (notated)

    by the finger. However, onemay push*single strings, the two upper ones, somewhat further to the side thproducing stronger vibrations than with pairs of strings. It is desirable to producea beautiful clear tone. We practice the PULLING OFF on the following examExercise 19: (diagram)

    (diagram). One fingers the e-fret and the c-fret at the same time, thus pressingdown the first and fourth finger at the same time, then one plucks the e with theright hand and then pulls off the fourth finger. The following fingering rules eWhole steps (two frets) are fingered with the first and fourth finger, half stepsfingered either withA

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 11

    letter is pulled off. If one such quick PULL-OFF () coincides with a bass note, thePULL-OFF happens at the same time the bass note is attacked. The pulled off

    is the

    gracenotes we practices as well as theimultaneous plucking of bass- and play course. At first we execute the

    e them stand out clearly. Since it is the

    Page 17te, which we will

    ng piece and which is indicated by an arch in front of the

    the HAMMERING be played from any note (fret).

    e done from the c-fret to the e-fret as well, as from the d-

    the righthand and then hammer the left finger quickly thereafter onto the d-fret: (diagram).

    note (the main note) is then heard shortly after the bass note:Exercise 21 (diagram)* Dave: as far as I can tell, (since I dont know the English term for PULLOF) the

    note that I (in literal translation of the text) refer to as the pulled off noteone which is not plucked by the right handThe following Menuett requires thesgracenotes fairly slowly in order to makrule that the fingers of the left hand remain in the same position as long aspossible, the d-fret fingered in the upbeat is held until in the fifth measure, the e-fret replaces it.

    Exercise 22: Second Menuett (diagram)

    In the next piece we practice the gracenote on the lowest playing course and theSOUNDING ATTACK (SOUNDING STRUM?) of the low playing courses:

    Exercise 23: Third Menuett (diagram)The opposite of the PULL-OFF is the Hammering of a noencounter in the followiletter. The most simple form of HAMMERING is hammering from an empty stringonto a fret: (diagram)First the empty string is plucked with the right hand, then shortly after the fingerof the left hand hammers down onto the indicated fret. This hammering actionmust be strong enough to product a clearly audible note.

    A quickly executed HAMMERING has the effect of a gracenote from below. Asthe PULLOFF before, so canThe rule is as follows: the gracenote from below is always played from the nextlowest note of the scale. This may involve either a full- or a half step, thus thegracenote can be played from the next or second next letter below. For example,HAMMERING ON can bfret to the e-fret. This depends on the key the piece is written in. In most casesthe fret in question has already been fingered before so that there can be nodoubt, which fret is the correct one.

    In the fourteenth measure of the following piece the second finger is already inposition on the letter c which had been fingered in the preceding measure. Toperform the HAMMERING ON we hold this fret, pluck the string with

    In exceptional cases, when the HAMMERING ON is supposed to occur from anote foreign to the respective sale, the required fret will be indicated beforehand:(diagram)

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    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 12

    5

    3

    m)

    Page 18

    pluck the higher C (diagram). Theue of

    bleg

    string

    or the first time we encounter here a chord of three letters on top of each other:e ring finger for the uppermost string.

    The lowest string is played by the index finger and the middle string, where no

    thehord by itself, then we play 3 strings, and finally all four strings.

    Page 19

    Page 20

    ote: in order to give the student a better understanding of the harmony

    t in root position numbers above thetter indicate the required intervals. The numbers are used according to the

    accent on the ring finger; 2. Accent on the index finger; 3. Bass notellowed by plucking the chord; 4. Quick change.

    If the HAMMERING ON occurs simultaneously with a bass note, as in ourexample, the right hand plucks both strings at the same time and immediatelyafter that, the left hand executes the HAMMERING ON (diagra

    Exercise 24: Menuet en Air (diagram)

    During a Gigue the thumb occasionally leaves the bass strings and jumps up tothe third treble string (Spielcher) in order tothumb does not move close to the strings but performs an arch. This techniqjumping with the thumb will be described in detail later. After playing a trecourse (Spielcher) the thumb does not fall upon the next string but is held floatinabove the just-plucked string so that he can move on right away to the nexthe has to play.

    F(diagram). The tablature tells us to use th

    finger is indicated, is played with the middle finger. We first practice the attackwith three fingers (and thumb) on empty strings. First we play each note ofcExercise 25 (diagram)Now we will be able to do the Gigue.5th piece Gigue (diagram 26) tablature according to the original.

    Exercise 27 (diagram)The attack with the ring finger must be practiced some more. Let us attempt thefollowing chord sequence (27).

    Nstructure, chord exercises are accompanied by chord letters which have becomestandard in guitar playing. The letters indicate the bass notes. Capital lettersindicate a major triad, small letters indicate a minor triad. While the bass noteindicated by letter is the same as that in the tablature indicated bass string thetriad which goes along with it must be fingered on the treble strings. The basicchord contains root, third and fifth, in numbers

    If a chord is to be played which is nolerules of figured bass so that the students become well acquainted with this formof abbreviated notation which every lute player used to know by heart.

    Playing the chords wont work too well at first, to get a really smooth, even soundfrom the attack we first must break up the chords and emphasize the singlenotes. Thus we play exercise 27 in four different ways.1, With thefo

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    A Translation: Page 13

    Then we repeat the complete chords as in 27 and are glad that it works alrelot better.

    ady a

    From this first suite we gained a certain advantage for our lute playing, namelyne another as chords and to finger them

    Page 20

    rs

    owever, in the beginning it is not necessary to know the structure. The ability to

    Page 21

    the ability to read letters which follow o

    accordingly. That was a rather simple thing to do with thesepieces since most of the chords were broken the same way. It becomes moredifficult in the first piece, the entre of the next suite. This suite is from the samesource. Here the first three letters belong together and the following four lettebelong together, in the fourth measure the first four notes belong together(diagram)

    Hassociate the letters one reads in the tablature with the chords they belong to isacquired with constant practice. J ust remember that the fingers of the left handhold the fret which they finger as long as possible, then after paying close

    attention to the tablature the chord fingerings will become apparent.

    Parthie in d minor1. Entre (28) from the lute book of the PrincesW

    s ofrttemberg, around 1740.

    higher positions on the fingerboard, twiceh 13

    . Menuett (29)

    Page 22cord effect as it was intended. In the fourth

    nd this

    Page 23e

    v the same key signature (in

    5,

    theeginning of the first piece of the next suite (diagram). This means that we are

    The following menuett introduces us towe encounter h, the 7th fret. Here are the letters for fret 6 throug2

    In the following menuet we want to pay attention to leave the fingers on thefingered frets to emphasize the

    measure of the following menuett we find the broken A major chord, we fichord also in the fourth measure of the variation.3. Menuet (30)

    4. Variation (31)We could play these two suites without retuning any of the bass strings becausthey were written in parallel keys; i.e. keys which ethis case, F major and d minor). If we change keys, the free vibrating bass strings

    ha

    must be tuned to the new scale.

    To be able to play the following suite in C major we have to retune bass stringwhich in the F major scale was tuned to b-flat, to b. We know how to do thisalready from the general tuning instructions. We find instructions beforebsupposed to finger the C fret of the sixth string and tune the bass string 5 to thisnote.

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    A Translation: Page 14

    Page 24 Suite in C major: 1. March, German around 1740 (32)In the mealetheir fingering can be used in different positions to produce other chords(diagram) . The first chord is the G major chord, played two frets lower we have

    the F major chord (diagram) and further: E major (diagram)

    sures 16 and 18 of this piece two chord fingerings resulted fromaving the left hand fingers on the frets. We should memorize these chords well,

    Page 25

    4):g over one bass string: The thumb, after plucking bass string 4 does

    ot fall upon ///a, but glides across this string without playing it and thus reaches

    This fingering can also be used to barre (33), In the same manner we can movethe other chord fingering. The new following menuet is an example for themovement of the bass which we first encountered in introductory exercise (The skippinn//a which will be plucked, etc. In measure 9 we encounter an unusual sign: twoletters above each other connected with the next pair by arches (diagram). Thisis the Deppeleinfall (double hammering on). We right away face both forms, oneoriginating on an empty string (measure 11). The execution of the first vers

    pretty easy. As indicated by the parenthesis the two c are to be finge

    ion is

    red bybarring them with the first finger. Thus we strum with the right hand the twoc-fret of

    e execution of the figure in measure 9 is moreifficult (diagram). First we barre the c-fret of the three upper strings with the first

    ammersits second finger hammers down on d. Both fingers have to

    hammer down simultaneously. The movement of these two fingers may initiallyth

    empty strings and then hammer the first finger of the left hand on to thethe two strings (diagram). Thdfinger of the left hand, then we strum with the right hand and then, with the withthe index finger of the left hand remaining in position, its fourth finger hdown on e and

    be inhibited by the index finger which is barring the three strings, however widiligent practice this should not remain a problem.

    2. Menuet (34)In the very singa

    Page 26 ing second menuet we should give special attention to producing

    nice singing tone with the right hand. The left hand has no specialnow we are completely used to keeping the left hand fingers inassignments. By

    place until they have to be moved, this is very important for measures 13-17 and25-29. The dots in measure 25 indicate that measures 25-32 are to be repeated(Note: Dave, I think he is not talking about the second but the third minuettewhich follows)

    3 Menuette (25)In this piece we encountered a new fingering for the C major chord, namely tfingering in measure one. By moving this fingering we have chords for other(diagram, p27, top)

    This ti

    hekeys

    Page 27 me not the octave of the bass note but the fifth of the bass note occupiesthe highest string. Thus we differentiate between OCTAVE-FORM and FIFTH-FORM. Let us memorize: Chord fingerings; (36). This diagram shows the twoforms for the indicated chords.

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    A Translation: Page 15

    Octavgriff = OCTAVE-formQuintgriff = FIFTH-formThe Gigue is an excellent exercise for the jumping with the thumb. We can onlyachieve perfect aim if the supporting little finger always rests in exactly thplace. So let us concentrate on never changing the position of the little finger as

    we are playing. Do not press the finger onto the top, just rest

    e same

    the fingertip lightly.If the thumb has to cover any larger distance it does not slide across the strings

    g 4,s

    string.

    hich

    Page 28

    in-between, but is lifted over them. Look for example at the skip over two octavesin measure 2: at the beginning of the measure the thumb rests on bass strina slight pressure moves the thumb to string ///a, from there the thumb describeand arch which brings it to the third treble string.The further the distance to be covered, the higher the arch of the thumb must be;the shorter the distance, the lower the arch of the thumb. Plucking of treblestrings with the thumb is not done, as in the case of bass strings, by applyingpressure to the string and letting the thumb fall upon the next string. Instead, thethumb attacks the string from above with a sideways plucking motion. We use, of

    course, the inside of the thumb. The thumb does not touch any neighboringbut is lifted immediately after the attack and held suspended above the stringNote: this rule, namely that the thumb, when playing a treble string does not fallupon the next string, does not apply to the lowest treble string, the 5 string, wis commonly treated like a bass string.

    4. Gigue (37)In the third measure of the above gigue we find the last major chord fingering,which we have been missing so far, here the third of the chord is fingered on thehighest treble string. This form is the THIRD-Form (Terzgriff) (diagram)

    Now we can com

    Page 29plete our chord system

    G Major D Major C MajorOctave=Third=Fifth Third=Fifth=Octave Fifth=Octave=Third

    fretajor. In a similar way we can deduct the fingering of other chords

    y looking at them as lowered or raised notes of one of the above-mentioned

    (38) (Diagram)

    For F major we move all frets up one from E major, for B major we move onedown from C mbchords.

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    A Translation: Page 16

    ll

    Second LevelContent Exercises No Pieces

    Attack techniques RH*

    RunningRule for

    technique 39attack

    Breaking 54

    Moving(changiplace ofBrushin

    hand up 61ng timbre by movingattack)

    gSlowly (melodic) 62

    Faster (chords) 66

    Deaden(rests)

    ing of string65

    With attack fingering

    With flat hand

    FingerinStretching

    ns

    g techniques LH

    In ru 41

    While pulling off 69# Vibrato 46

    X Trills 48Accurate aim on thefingerboard 55

    ~ Pulling off at hammering onconnected 60

    ~ MordenChord t

    t 60able 57

    Chord theoryChord sequence G 56

    Chord sequence D 56(identical chords in variouspositions)Chord sequence in b (h-moll)

    * RH =Right hand; LH =Left Hand

    g finger4. unaccented ring finger5. clear attack with three

    moving chord position 71

    Attack exercise in b-minorQuick brushing across2-3 m 3Scale studies

    ajor 42d-minor 43

    b-minor 72

    4. Gigue 52

    6

    Count Gaisruck,Menuet 68

    Johann Seb BachAir 74

    Alternating attack 39Crossing over to otherstrings, runs 40Walking in octaves:on the upper 6 strings 49lower strings 50both lower and upper 51Attack exercise in G 561. closed index and

    middle finger2. emphasizing upper

    voice3. accented rin

    Parthie in C1. Menuett/Trio 452. Pasterelle 473. Menuett 48

    Passepied @ Gigue 54Suite in D1. Entre 602. Gavotte 613. Paisane 644. Menuet 65. Capriccio 67

    fingers

    Changing timbre by

    March and Menuettein D 69/70

    iddle strings 7

    F-m

    C-major 44G-major 53D-major 59

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    A Translation: Page 17

    Page 33 Quote by Lesage de Riche Last it is to be noted /that one must handle the lutetenderly / and not roughly / for otherwise it will lose its grace / and lute playingbecomes more like sandp

    Runs Rule Th t student w his aggrav at the

    two fingers of t ernate even layingcated on his a n indeedporta or p ying evenly balanced runs. The rule is that in runs the

    d note is always inge ed onet matter w th played on a

    ing or h s a Crossi does notg ru

    and even, flowin l th diligentractice ile rictly following the indicated fingering. A few

    ry exer s ar in s

    x 39

    apering than music.

    e observan

    attacking

    ill have noticed maybe to

    he right hand constantly alt

    ation th

    when pnotes that are lo the same string. T lter ating attack isextremely im nt f laaccente played with the middle f

    er. It does no her, the unaccent

    always with the index fing er the run issingle str urrieinvalidate the standin

    clean

    cross several strings. ng stringsle.

    A g run technique can ony be achieved wiconstant p , wh

    ost

    preparat cise e designed to help us thi task

    E Exercise (39) Alternating attack (diagram)atingAltern

    Attac dont e out the bass and rest the thumb ona bass string. On l se ise with

    s.

    The next exercise he gility in crossingx 40

    k In case things work out right away leavly when the attacking fingers fee cure play the exerc

    the bas

    lps us to gain a strings:E Exercise (40) Crossing s ings (diagram)CrossString

    ge ucking hand in the manneralter ate attack on one string

    finger the indicated frets according to

    41

    trings

    Pa 34 This third exercise unites the fingering hand and the plthat the plucking hand ex

    ring hand stecutes the very simple n

    and the fingethe fingering instructions

    retches in order to.

    Ex Exercise (41) Stretching the left hand (diagram)Stretc pielcher)hing Identical exercise on the 4th and 5th treble course (S

    Exercise (diagram)

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    A Translation: Page 18

    Page 35 After these introductory exercises the following runs in F-major, d-minor, and C-major will present little or no problems. For playing runs the following rule goesthe fingers remain on the frets only as long as tha

    :at does not hinder the balance

    nd evenness of the run: the finger stays down on the fret if another fret on the

    Scale studyEx 42

    same string, a fret higher up the string, is fingered; the finger is lifted if the

    following letter is on a different string. Only if we follow this rule exactly will therun sound smooth and even:

    Exercise (42) Scale study in F-major (diagram)Exercise (43)Ex 43 Scale study in d-minor (diagram)Exercise (44)Ex 44 Scale study in

    A small suite will reward us for our efforts: the low position in which it moveswell known to us after the run exercises:

    C-major (diagram)

    is

    age 36 Exercise (45)P Parthie in C from the lute book of the Princess Luise of

    Page 37#

    measure of the following Pasterelle. Itis a cross, similar to the one used for raising a note in the regular notation (#).Like all symbols for ornamentation or embellishing it appears behind the letter it

    belongs to and indicates Vibrato

    Wrttemberg around 1740Ex 45Suite 1. Menuet Alternativement

    Trio

    thVibrato We will encounter a new symbol in the 10

    . The Vibrato is produced on the lute in the same

    xpression. The movement of the hand must originatefrom the wrist and is not to involve the arm, it must be swift and relaxed. The less

    e string is pressed less upon

    Vibrate is easiest with the third finger (diagram)it is more difficult with the second finger (diagram)A good Vibrato with the first or fourth finger is only possible, when the hand isvery relaxed and loose (diagram).The Vibrato effect can also be extended to two fingers, even whole chords, thusgiving the music much more soul:

    Ex 46 Exercise (46) (diagram)

    manner as on a string instrument. While finger sits firmly on the fret it is forced bya continuous swinging movement of the hand, to bow forward and backward inthe direction of the string. This movement slightly influences the pitch of the noteand gives it more life and e

    pressure the finger exerts upon the string, thus ththe fingerboard, the more we can influence the tone.

    Vibrato In the Pasterelle we want to attempt, to accent the melody in the upper voice witha smooth, full attack of the right hand

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    A Translation: Page 19

    Page 38

    2. Pasterelle

    Ex 47XTrills (fingering for the left hand according to the original)

    Falling in (Verschlag, hammering on) may be repeated several times, thus

    creating a trill effect. A trill is indicated by a cross X behind the letter andcommonly constitutes a doubling of the hammering on (Verschlag) from above.However, the player is free to extend the duration of the trill, if the piece allows todo so. Then the trill should begin slowly and become faster and faster. In the

    et us attempt the doubling of theer:e hammer it upon the fret on

    which it rested before, then pull it off again, without plucking the string with the

    When barring with the first finger at the beginning of the piece, keep the hand as

    to move.

    3. Menuet

    measures 4, 12, and 14 of the following pieces lhammering on (Verschlag) in the following mannafter pulling off the finger the first time, we at onc

    right hand:Diagrams: for trills in measures 12, 4, 14

    high above the fingerboard, as possible so that the fingers have room

    48 (48) (fingering for the left hand according to the original)

    ctave runs

    50 The Gigue introduces in the measures 14/15 and the repetitions octave runs

    Page 39OEx 49Ex and

    broken chords with the use of the ring finger. The latter should pose nodifficulties, since we practiced them in 27/II in the same manner.

    Octave runs are very simple on the lute, since the strings, which are an octaveapart, are always fingered on the same fret.

    (Diagram) 49 Octave runsThe low position is more difficult (diagram) 50

    Diagram (51) Now we play on the entire fingerboard4

    Now we change the key to G-major and thus havesharp. The instruction goes as follows (diagram) finger the b on the 4th treblestring and tune the bass string to thfamiliarize ourselves with the position of the notesExercise (53)

    Page 40Ex 51Ex 52 . Gigue (52) (up to measure 22 the fingering is according to the original)

    Page 41 to tune the f-bass string to f-

    is note. Now we can play the G-major scale to

    53

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    A Translation: Page 20

    Page 42 The lively Passepied contains in measure 29 a new symbol (diagram)

    .This diagonal line between two letters position on top of each otherdemands a breaking of the attack, an even breaking according to the rhythmthe piece. Thus the 29th measure is played in the following manner (diagram

    Passepied (54)

    of)

    54 German around 1710Note to measure 28: Execution of the repeat dots: first play through the secondpart. Then begin again at the dots in measure 24 and play through to the end.Then repeat the ending again from the dots in measure 28. In exactly the samemanner the second part is played again.

    (55)

    Page 4355 Gigue Remember to repeat the ending from the dots

    The last two pieces move us into the higher positions on the fingerboard. In order

    to be able to hit each of the 9 frets immediately and accurately it is necessary to

    Page 44

    In the middle of the neck is the f-fret; i.e., the area in which the f-fret is fingered;two frets higher the h-fret; again two frets higher the k-fret, the last fret which iswound around the neck. Then we have to remember the n-fret as the middle of

    et usedn be able to hit

    divide the fingerboard in a clear manner:AccuracyAim

    the string, the octave. From these frets as points of orientation we can easily findthe others, which are in-between the ones mentioned. If we hold the lute duringplaying in always the same manner and position soon the left hand will gto the various positions required by various frets so that it will soothe main frets f and h without trouble and soon all the others too.

    Before we leave the key of G-major, let us tathis key and their positionschord row as an exercise for the right hand

    ke a look at all the chords familiar toon the fingerboard. Let us use the here indicated

    Diagram (56)Ex 56 chords related to G-major

    ith three fingers (diagram)

    G, D, e, b, C, D, G, D7, GWe practice this pieces in the following manner:

    I. Attack with closed (?) index and middle finger (diagramII. Emphasizing of the upper voice, soft accompaniment (diagram)

    III. J umping (skipping) exercise for the thumb (diagram)IV. Accented ring finger (diagram)V. Unaccented ring finger (diagram)VI. Clear attack w

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    A Translation: Page 21

    Page 45 In the second part of this exercise we encountered two minor chords: th

    include these two chords in their respective place in our fingering table (34).Since we have used B-flat major in this table, for easier organization, and not B-major, we have to read the b-minor Octave form a fret lower. (diagram) The only

    missing fingering for th Third Form (Terzgriff) for minor chords is a barre chord

    e fifthform (Quintgriff) for e-minor and the octave form (Oktavgriff) for b-minor. Let us

    e or, e-minor, g-minor (diagrams).

    t

    rm and will then have a complete tablef all minor and major chords with all their inversions:

    across the upper three strings for d-minWith the help of these three minor chord forms we can now easily supplementthe still missing chords of our chord table: Octave Form b-minor; moved up a freturns to e-minor; moved two frets up turns into d-minor; two frets lower than b-minor it is a-minor; two more frets down and it is g-minor: (diagrams)We use the same system with the Fifth Foo

    Chord table7 Exercise (57) chord fingering table5

    G (g) D (d) C Octave=Third=Fifthform

    Third=Fifth=Octaveform

    Fifth=Octave=Thirdform

    Page 46 By retuning another bass string we now prepare the lute for another key(diagram). This means that the C string no longer is to be tuned to the d-fret ofthe 6th string but instead to the e-fret. We therefore have to tune it up a half stepto C-sharp. Now we can play in the keys with two sharps, D-major and b-minor(diagram 58).

    Now a small scale study (diagram 59)

    In the first piece of the following suite we get to know a new form of

    embellishment: Connecting Hammering on

    Ex 58Ex 59

    ~and Pulling off. Measure 5 requires

    (diagram)ers together I at once put the second

    imultaneously the fourth finger upon the e-fret. Afterpull off the fourth finger and

    hammer it again upon the e-fret. In other words, the second finger always

    Mordent

    ture results: (diagram)We will return to the mordent later and will study it in detail in several pieces.

    In order to be able to tie theses three lettfinger upon the d-fret and splucking the string with the right hand I first of all

    remains upon the d-fret (diagram for measures 19 and 20)If this figure is executed very swiftly it produces what we call a mordent.

    The symbol for the mordent is

    If we use the mordent in our example the following pic

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    A Translation: Page 22

    Page 47Exercise (60)Ex 60 Suite in D-major1. Entree in D#, from the lute book of the Princess Luise of Wrttemberg arou1740.Note: Play through the first part without heeding the Fermata in the last measure.

    Incorporate into this last measure (of the first part) the upbeat for the beginningand repeat. Play this repetition only through to the Fermata, second beatlast measure. Hold the Fermata until it is time for the second part. Play throughthe second part and repeat from the dots in measure 13, then play the secondpart again with the same repetition.

    nd

    in the

    age 48oser to the Rosette

    P If we are playing a short repetition at the end of a piece, we can emphasize it bymoving the right hand and the supporting little finger cl and byattacking the strings close to the lower edge of the Rosette. Thus the tone will be

    ving the hand up the supporting finger glidesvery relaxed from its old position to the new position, always parallel to the

    highest string. The following piece gives us opportunity to practice the change ofposition with the right hand:

    x 61 2. Gavotte (61)

    sweeter and more soulful. While mo

    E

    Brushing

    string after attacking a string. Thus we produce a sort of brushingeffect of two notes which are positioned on two neighboring strings. This

    nal line (left toage 49

    right) under the letters.This brushing (Streifen) effect is done especially by the2 index finger which is then held completely stretched out: Exercise 62 (diagram)

    3

    ingEx 64

    Usually the attacking fingers of the right hand are not allowed to touch the nextstring after they have plucked one string. But there are cases when the index andmiddle finger are to be treated in the same manner as the thumb, thus fallingupon the next

    brushing effect is indicated by a diagoPEx 6Ex 6 The following figure is most common: Exercise 63 (diagram).

    The next piece requires various brushings (Streifer) from the second string tothe third str3. Paisane (64) continues on page 50

    The brushing (Streifer) can be executed so quickly that it gives the impressioof an attack on two strings. We encounter this case in the measures 4, 12,and 34 of the following Menuet. Here we have either a three

    Page 50 n

    16-voiced chord which

    ing annder

    yed with the index finger; and a diagonal line, thisthe two letters to be brushed (Streifen). In order to gain the effect

    hearing a chord exists.

    is to be played by only two fingers (diagram) or an unaccented note followaccented note (Nachschlag). We encounter the following symbol: the dot uthe first letter, which is to be platime in front ofof a chord sound, let the notes follow each other in the following manner(diagram). The notes must follow each other so quickly, that the impression of

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    A Translation: Page 23

    rests For the first time we encounter the symbol for a rest in measure 28 and 30. Thatis symbol no string should sound. We produce a

    by resting the fingers used to pluck the notes back on the string, as if we

    Ex 65

    means that for the duration of threst by muting the notes plucked last at the necessary time. We mute notes andchordswanted to pluck the chord again.

    Exercise 65 (diagram) rests

    We gain a more effective muting effect if we use the entire right hand to stop thevibration of the strings by laying it flat across all strings. Thus all strings, thosewhich have not been plucked at all to

    Page 51

    o, are prevented from vibrating. Theexecution of this rest is more difficult for we do not want to lose the support of the

    t the

    iately after the attack and stays above the stringage 52 it just played (see 37). The only exception to this rule is the 5th treble string, the

    ng, which is treated like a bass string. The final repetition in thispiece sounds better if we emphasize it by moving the pace of attack closer to the

    Ex 67

    little finger while putting the hand flat across. Lets try to play the exercise in thismanner. The rest with the use of the entire hand must be used to mute chords of4 and more notes!The last piece of the suite is a very good exercise for thumb plucking on treblestrings. We have to pay attention to what was discussed earlier, namely tha

    thumb does not fall upon the next string when it plays treble strings. Like theother fingers it is lifted immedP

    lowest treble stri

    Rosette.5. Capriccio (67)We find a great number of Hammering On (Einfall) are written into the Menuetthe Count of Gaisruck. This piece, which goes up to the m-fret, also uses Vibrato(#).

    by

    Page 53Ex 68 Menuet (68) by Count Gaisruck around 1720

    The execution of Hammering On or Pulling Off is decidedly mfingers are free but some are fixed to a certain fret. The easiest of these cases iwhen besides th

    ore difficult if not alls

    e two fingers used to Pull Off a third finger is needed to holdmeasure 2 and 8 of the following march

    (diagram)

    Page 54Ex 69

    down a fret. We encounter this case in

    March and Menuett: German around 1750March (69)The following Menuett gives us the opportunity to practice a slow brushing(Streifer)MenuettEx 70 (70)

    Finally we want to study the chords of this key. All chords formed on the upperthree strings can be play nd rd th

    Page 55

    ed on the 2 , 3 and 4 string with the same voicing butwith a different, darker timbre. The fact that one can play the same note on

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    several strings in different positions was one of the main reasons for preservingthe system of tablature. A short example shall enlighten us:ExerciseEx 71 (Diagram 71)Chords D, G, A, D in various positions.Let us practice the exercise in 6 different ways:I. Accented thumb (diagram)

    II. Unaccented thumb (diagram)III. Changing fingers in the chord (diagram)

    age 56Ex 72

    IV. Syncopation effect through strong thumb attack (diagram)V. Brushing (Streifer) (diagram)VI. Fast Brushing (Schnelle Streifer) )diagram

    By moving this exercise up 1, 2, 3 or 4 frets respectively, the player cantranscribe the exercise into the keys of E-flat, E-major, F-major and F-sharp.

    P A short scale study takes us to the parallel minor of D-major, b-minor (72)Brushing (Streifer) can also be played across several strings as we see in the

    next piece (diagram). The diagonal line in front of the letters demands brushing

    g technique the key of b-minor differs essentially from the key

    der to be able to play this fingering the fingers need to be stretched. Theplayer is forced by the prescribed fingering to assume the technically best

    position with his fingers: to stretch the fingers apart to an extent that they do notly independent from each other

    (Streifer) across c-b-a. If you played this slowly you would hear the notes in thefollowing manner (diagram). However, execution of this figure must be so swiftthat the attacks almost seem to flow together in one attack. Thus the impressionof a chord is created. The next piece also uses the slow brushing (Streifer).

    In terms of fingerinof D-major. Now we cannot play the sequence of e-fret c-fret any longer just withthe fourth and first finger since frequently a b-fret will follow the c-fret (diagram).In or

    touch each others. The fingers should be totaland not be influenced by each others movement. They should not even touchwhen they sit next to each other on the same fret.

    Let us practice the quick brushing (Schneller Streifer) within a chord a bit more,for it is of utmost importance.

    x 73 First across two, then three strings Exercise (73)EThen we conclude the second part of our study with this beautiful, majestic Air.

    onymously, it could only have beench.

    Ex 74

    Though it has been handed down to use ancomposed by J .S. BaAir (74) Possibly by J ohann Sebastian Bach?

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    lll

    Third Leveles No. PiecesContent ExercisContent Exercis

    Attack Techniques Right HandAttack Techniques Right Hand

    Hammering on uponHammering on uponthree lettersthree letters

    Schule fur die Barock lauteThis document is a transcription from the original typed translation that was coordinated by and made available from Dave Phillips, circa 1978.

    A Translation: Page 25

    lll

    Third Leveles No. Pieces

    Two fold pulling off 78

    Continuous trill 79

    Brushing of chord 80

    ing withe finger 80

    BrushMiddl

    Backto cha(echo

    of hand moves downnge timbreeffect) 81

    Fingering Technique Left Hand4 type1. Small/Empty bass2. Sm3. Lar4. Larempty

    s of barring 82

    all/Fingered bassge/Across 6 coursesge/At times upper strings left

    Slur 82

    DoubNeighDista

    le pulling off 83boring coursent courses

    Double trill 85

    Hammering on with 4th

    Tight trill (PralltrHammering on/P

    finger/free hand 99

    iller)ulling off connected 100

    ~ n outWritte

    Symbol

    // g 101Mutin

    Separate attack of

    Two strings of course 103Thumb attack acrosstwo courses 104Chord theory:Chord row a-minor 86

    brushing 3 strings

    Ar ia: Lusinghiereaste 75

    Hagen Minuett 76

    ng77

    2. How sweet are the flowers78

    79

    8012

    990

    929394

    1. Cappricce (a) 959697

    4. Menuet (c) 98

    99

    Cappricce 100

    Menuet 102

    WL v. RadoltAllemande 104

    Vienna chimes 105(by Count Losy?)

    Double pulling offAttack exercise a-minor86

    er brushesmin gaun1. Index fing

    both middle courses2. bass with followup

    chord brushing3. Simultaneous bass

    attack index finger

    Th A Arne1. When Fanny bloomifair

    Run exercise a-minor 871. Thumb attack2. Alternate stroke with

    middle/index finger3. Alternate stroke with

    thumb/index finger

    Muting exercise02

    Separate attack of twostrings of a course 103

    Scale study a-minor 87

    JB HagenAria

    CouranteEcho 8Rondeau 8Suite a-minor1. Allemande 882. Courante 83. Gavotte4. Aria andAlternativement5. Bouree6. Gigue

    Suite

    2. La Tournee (d)3. Menuet (f)

    Count BergenMenuet

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    Page 61 Lute is an art / if one does iteven try it.

    ~Petrus Fabritius

    hout the othan the bu

    well / who does not want to learn it right / should not

    Lutebook 1603

    So far throug exercises in this book the bassescant

    n tes were of lessimportance sy D . In most cases the ba o

    s s we ant to learn to combineic bass line with per voic

    Ex 75 hiero min g

    ss was limited trepeatedly played root . Now in the following piece

    melodic line in the upw

    a melod amajor.

    e. We tune back to G-

    Aria Lusing aunaste (75) from the Augsburgcentury.

    enuett of the B d

    mer

    lutebook of the 18th

    mIn the ayre

    ing

    uth Lutist J oachim Bernhar von Hagen we find,

    besides many Ham on and Pulling off, three lsure of each part the following

    ette , conto last mea fig

    Page 62 gnifies a Hamme

    rs nected by an arch.In the next

    This si ringure occurs (diagram)

    on on three letters. Herether. After plucking the em

    twoe o pty s

    n the c-fr nd hen the fourth finger hammers upon the d-fretd finger rema encount gure in the

    the English an Arne.Ex 76 Be 0

    letters hammer uponthe string, one after th tring the second fingerhammers upo et a twhile the secon ins in position. We er the same fifollowing song by mMenuett (76) by J oachim rnhard Hagen around 175

    Ex 77 hen Fanny Blooming Fair (W 77) by Thomas Au usting A 78

    Page 63 Similar to the Hammering on e b

    rne 1710-17

    to three letters is th dou le pulling off (Beiderlei

    Abzug) wh thicpu

    h we find in ese two pieces as well (diagra rst and fourtht upon the indicated frets simultaneously and after the string is

    irst the fourth then the first finger are pulled e will practice this

    ow (78)

    m). The fifinger are

    ed fpluck andfigure also with the other fingers (diagram)

    off. W

    Ex 78 How sweet are the fl ers by Thomas Augustin Arne. Vivace.

    Page 64 Hammering on ca donn be e from the empty string upon any fret, Pulling off canne from any fret to the empty string (diagram) In the Aria by Hagen we find

    Hammering on (Einfall) upon e-fret and f-fret as well-fret to the empty string.

    be dothefrom e

    as Pulling off (Abzug)

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    A Translation: Page 27

    Continuous

    e find an example in the next piece at the end of the first part.

    he first time takes advantage of the possibility to indicate the

    Trillsxx If the cross symbol for a trill is repeated after the letter the trill is supposed to be

    continued. W

    This aria also for tneighboring note (Vorschlags-note) for the Hammering on by giving the auxiliarya small

    Ex 79

    letter for this not by putting it behind the bow indicating hammering on asletter.Aria (79) by J oachim Bernhard Hagen around 1750Repeat from the row of dots which is marked with an R for repeat.

    5

    one another we already know as the symbol for breaking the chord.

    Page 6 We just had to play a trill running on through two beats, the now followingCourante extends the trill for five beats. The short diagonal line between letterson top of

    we

    a

    owing

    t

    Ex 80

    This must be done as mentioned before in the rhythm of the piece. Thus

    have to play this measure in the following manner (diagram)

    The two final measures introduce a new form of brushing (Streifer) (diagram).This way of playing a chord was much used in the 17th century and is played asfast brushing (Schneller Streifer), executed by the index finger alone, which isindicated by the dot under the highest letter and the diagonal line runningdownward in front of the three letters.

    For the first time we encounter brushing with the middle finger in the follmeasure (diagram). A diagonal line in front of the two letters, neither of themshowing a dot, marks this brushing (Streifer). The addition of the Hammering on

    makes this figure especially difficult since not the letter f but the preceding d-fremust be used for the brushing. The figure has to be played in the followingmanner (diagram)Courante (80) German lutebook 1722

    age 6 In pieces we played before we have already used the moving of the hand inP 6

    If we now move the right hand the opposite direction, toward the bridge, thenotes lose their softness and mellowness and sound harsh and brittle, dry. It isexactly this sound which is perfectly suited for producing a kind of echo effect.The following piece with the title Echo gives us the opportunity to practice thisright hand move. During the repeat which is required after every two measureswe move the right hand back, until the little finger does not support the hand

    order to change the timbre of our notes. We changed the timbre by attacking thestring at a different place and thus accented repetitions. When we did this, wemoved the hand far enough toward the fingerboard that it would attack the stringabove the rosette. Thus the note would sound softer, mellower but also not asclear.

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    above but below the bridge. If we simultaneously weaken the power of the attacknd left hand, thus playing softer, the echo effect will be perfect.

    1by right a

    Ex 8 Echo (81) German lutebook of 1722

    T

    the following Rondeau. They are the following:1. Small barr

    here are four kinds of barring fingerings with the first finger which we practice in

    with the index finger across the three highest treble strings withthe bass being plucked empty (diagram)

    2. Small barr across the highest treble strings with fingered bass (diagram)3. Big barr across six strings (diagram)

    age 67P4. Big barr during which the highest strings are at times left empty while

    index finger holds down the fret in the bass (diagram)

    with the four letters connected by a wavy line we encounter for the first time the

    slur

    the

    (Schleifer) which here is composed of double pulling off and hammering onoppelabzug und Einfall). A slur(D may, as we know, contain as many connectedpulling off and hammering on figures as desired and may continue across sevecourses. The slur

    ralis indicated through the wavy line under the letters which is

    composed of the arches for pulling off and hammering on. Only the first letter isplucked with the right hand, all other letters are played only with the left ha(diagram)R

    nd

    Ex 82 ondeau (82) German lutebook of 1722orThe second middlepart of this rondeau gave us a short look at the key of e-min

    which will be dealt with later because it is very difficult to finger.

    In the Aria by Kleinknecht which follows under (84) we find the double pulling off(Doppelter Abzug), that is the simultaneous pulling off of two letters writtenone another (diagra

    belowm). The execution of this pulling off figure is not all that easy

    8 cannot be touched.So let us first practice the two following figures (diagram) and only then the

    off

    Page 6 because the string in between the two

    pulling off figure which occurs here in the piece (diagram). The double pulling

    Ex 83 retune (diagram) and collect all the various (3) double pulling off

    figure cannot only be played upon two empty strings but also down to two otherletters (diagram). In doing this one puts down all four fingers at the same timeand after the right hand attack pulls off the fourth and third finger simultaneouslywhile the first and second finger remain down on the strings.Let us figures inne exercise (Ex 83 diagram)o

    At the beginning of the preceding piece we were instructed to retune the bassstring /a. Thus we have tuned the f-sharp back to f. Thus the empty bass stringsproduce the c-major scale (diagram). Thus we can now play in the keys of C-major and a-minor. The now following Aria shows us the already knowndiagonally ascending line not under but before the letters. In this case the notesare not to be broken up in the rhythm of the piece, they are to be attacked shortly

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    following another from the lowest to the highest (like and arpeggio) so that thechord becomes quite obvious to the ear.

    Page 69 Aria (84) by Kleinknecht around 1750In the following Andante we find the double pulling off figure and the double trill

    (diagram). The trill is played as a double antecedent (Vorschlag) thus being in

    nt:

    practice a repetition of the pulling off figure. The execution looks like this intablature (diagram.

    We already know the symbol for the morde . In this case the mordent isto be executed in the following manner: Measure 7 (diagram); Measure 2(diagram)

    Page 70 Andante (85) from Lutebook of Augsburg 18th century

    Before we attempt to study a Suite in a-minor, let us first look around a little in

    that key: First of all, we memorize the various positions of the most frequently-used triads in that key by playing some chord exercises:

    Ex 86 (diagram) using this chord row we practice the brushingPage 71 attack in the thrfollowing ways:1. The index finger brushes the two middle strings (diagram)2. Bas

    ee

    s with following chord which is brushed by the index finger across

    hen we play a scale study with four different attack possibilities:

    Ex 87

    three courses (diagram3. Simultaneous bass attack and brushing with the index finger across three

    courses (diagram)T

    Exercise 87 (diagram)1. Attack with the thumb2. Alternate stroke with middle and index finger3. Alternate stroke with thumb and index finger4. Two-fold alternate stroke with thumb-index finger and middle-index finger.

    The now following Suite in a-minor serves predominantly the development of agood technique for playing runs with the alternate stroke using middle- and indexfinger.

    Page 72 Suite in a-minor (88) German a1. Allemande

    2. Courante (89)3. Gavott (90)4. Aria (91)

    round 1730

    Page 73Page 74Page 75

    Alternativement (92) Repeat Aria !

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    Note : usually the movements in A-major require returning (diagram). However,in this case we do not require this in orde

    r to not disrupt the flow of the

    Alternativement between the first and second piece.

    Page 76

    Page 77 he bass strings 5 and 6 one can play in several keys withouttuning the bass strings. The 11 course lute was mainly used in the 17th century

    ), F-uett I) and C-major (Menuett II). These pieces use almost all the

    symbols we have encountered so far.

    uite:

    5. Bouree (93)

    6. Gigue (94)

    If one does without trebut lute masters write this convenient instrument into the 18th century. Thefollowing Suite unites the keys of a-minor (Capprice), d-minor (La Tourneemajor (Men

    S German Lutebook of 1722

    Page 78

    age 79 4. Menuett (98) C-major

    Page 80

    1. Capprice (95) a-minor

    2. La Tournee (96) d-minor3. Menuett (97) F-majorP

    Hammering on with the fourth finger from the free hand is used in the next piece.rth finger theExercising this form of hammering on is well suited to give the fou

    mobility and strength needed for fluent playing:

    Menuet (99) F-major by Count Bergen around 1720

    The next pieces are in d-minor, they do not indicate that we have to tune any

    tring differently, thus the Lute is supposed to be tuned in the basic tuning for theng 5 is still tuned to b we have to retune it (diagram). Theskey. Since our bass stricombination of hammering on and pulling off, a written out trill is practiced in thefollowing Capprice:

    Capprice (100) German Lutebook of 1722

    P If one, after attacking a note, lets the next plucking finger of the right hand fallquickly on the same string, the sound of the note will be cut off abruptly. For this

    cutting

    age 81

    off of a note there is a special symbol //, two diagonal lines behind the

    (diagram)

    ting ddle finger (diagram)e finger, quickly cut off with the index finger (101) (diagram)

    letter. Let us practice it in several different ways:

    On a single string (diagram)Attack with index fingerOn a course (diagram)Cut off with the miAtta with the middck l

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    ext piece

    Lutebook of 1722

    The symbol may appear after accented or unaccented notes. The most common

    use of this sign is its use for the separation of two of the same notesIn this manner we encounter the symbol used in the n

    a//a.

    x 102E Menuet (102) German

    Page 82 In the work of a Vienna master we encounter a further enrichment of the attack.

    We see capital and small letters which are joined with an arched line:This tells us to pluck at first only the bass string of the bass course and then laterwe pluck only the octave string. This split up of the bass course appears in theheyday of lute music in the second half of the 17th century. Commonly themasters make only sparing use of the peculiar sound effect, it appears usuallyofor the accumulation of this figurepractice this figure. After the pres

    nly in slow movements. The movement presented in this book is an exceptionand thus presents an excellent opportunity to

    sure of the attack the thumb does not land uponne string of the same course. The amount of su d not be lessened. To the contrary, the singleg d ack than a course, thus we move the place of the

    the xt course but on the octavepres re (force of attack) neestrin emands a stronger attattack closer to the bridge:

    Ex 103 Exercise 103 (diagram)

    A vertical line in front of two bass strings on top of each other points to theo courses would have to be

    t

    Page 83Ex 104

    attack with the thumb. Even without the line those twplucked with the thumb, the line only emphasizes the thumb attack which musbe so swift, that both courses melt into one.

    Allemande (104) by Wenzel Ludwig Edler von Radolt, 1701

    We conclude Part Three with the ChimesPage 84

    x 105 of Vienna, attributed to the famouse

    Ebohemian Count Losy. This Gigue demands extreme mobility of all fingers of thright hand and the left hand upon the treble strings.

    Exercise 105 Carillon Des Cloches de Vienne German Lutebook of 1722

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    lV

    Fourth Level

    Content Exercises No. Pieces

    ack technique Right HandAtt

    Pu

    lling off neighboring course106

    Brushing through 106

    Counter stroke 120

    Rewitwit

    verse stroke 121h thumbh index finger

    Fingering Technique Left HandBaco

    rring with 4th finger across 4urses/bass empty 127

    4th

    fingered bass 129finger across 4 courses with

    ht trill (Pralltrill) 133Tig

    Long mordent 133Changing fingers on a fretwithout interrupting the note133Chord theory

    Figured bassesB-

    E-flat major 122c-minor 126g-mScale studiesB-flat major 107E-c-mg-m

    Run exercise E-flat major 118Attack Exercise E-flat major122

    1. Brushing and reverse brushing

    6. Counterstroke

    Attack exercise c-minor 126

    5. Outmost mobility of thumb

    Run exercise g-minor 131Attack exercise g-minor 132

    Counter-melody with:1. Index finger2. Ring finger3. Middle finger

    6

    110111

    1216

    7

    1272. Courante 1283. Aria 1294. Gavotte 130

    Johann S Bach

    3

    1354. Sarabande 1365. Gavott I 137

    138igue 139

    flat major 108

    2. Tremolo3. Reverse brushing with attack4. Arpeggio/brushing and reversebrushing5. Brushing through

    Suite g-minor1. Prelude 132. Allemande 1343. Courante

    inor 132Run exercise c-minor 123

    6. Gavott II7. G

    flat major 118inor 123inor 131

    Thumb attack on treble strings2. Large skips with thumb3. Finger change within chord4. Repetition of highest note

    Run exercise B-flat major 107Attack exercise B-flat major 1081. Two fingers/middle notefollowup2. Faster moving3. Brushing4. Follow up with brushing indexfinger

    Transposing exercise 109Missing high frets and empty

    strings 1131. As sound effect2. To avoid position change

    B-flat Major

    Minuett 10MenuetMinuetMenuett 1Ar ia 1Rondeau 11Cappricce en Gavotte 119Suite c-minor1. Allemande

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    Page 87 Luteplaying, you noble art/you bring joy to the heart/and favor to the player~Melchoir Newsidler in German Lutebook of 1574

    After o rough the arps we have arrived at our point of originand now we will turn our attention toward the keys with flats. Meanwhile we havers o s of plucking with the right

    on be

    ing piece g a special way of pu

    ur circle th keys with sh

    encountered all manne f the left hand and all meanhand as well. From nowextensions of already fami

    , new symbols will be soon clear as moreliar things.

    In the follow we et to know lling off (diagram). Herenot the string being played oris pulled off, but the neighb ing string is pulled off.

    After the first pulling off the e is held according tthe attack of the lled po

    orrect way of wou

    e

    p rd wh ly thethe thumb g ush

    s one a str t the highesucked by i dle finger toward the thumb. Doing this, the thumb

    x omes toe one string. The opposite of brushing across

    with the thumb i fi eere right in the y familiar

    ). While the c ith the help o r, the

    st brushing with the index finger:Ex 106

    o the rule andfollowingstring. The c

    next f the e is pu off u n the A of the emptyd be the following waywriting this out in tablature

    ver, is never used for it is too d

    l

    (diagram). This way, how ifficult to read.In the second part of thesymbol for (dia

    iece we encounter a cho ich shows onram). This is the sign for br ing with the thumb: the

    thumb brushe after nother, like an arpeggio, all ings excep twhich is pl the mdtreats the treble strings e

    e next string aftactly like bass strings, that means, the thumb c

    rest on thall strings

    r pluckings the brushing with the indexfirst measure and with which

    nger which wdencounter h we are alrea

    (diagram first hord is plucked w f the ring finge

    second c e achord is to b cented through faMenuett (106) German, about 1740

    Page 88 ing the E cour b ning of the last piece, wein the keys tw minor. In order to get

    scale study in the key of B-

    Ex 107

    After retun se, as required at the eginare now with o flats, B-flat major and g-

    littleacquaint e wied a bit mor th these keys we play aflat major.Exercise 107 (diagram)

    Then we do a chord exerc a plucking exercise byfollowing the instructions about breaking the chords in various ways. In additionto the sequence of chords in tion with the numbers of

    the figured bass also provided. What the lute is playing is nothing more than theactual execution of the figu

    Ex 108 Exercise 108 (diagram)

    ise which we also use as

    the bass is indicate notad

    red bass.

    Variations of 1081. With two fingers, pluckin etter after the other two2. Faster moving3. Brushing4. Follow up attack with the brushing index finger

    g the middle l

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    A Translation: Page 34

    Page 89Exercise 109Ex 109 the same as(diagram)

    108 b