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Transcript of Curriculum Development
Presentation TranscriptSlide 1:Curriculum Development An introduction
Slide 2:Historical Perspectives On Curriculum Development
Slide 3:The development of curriculum in history is basically founded on five outstanding motives: The religious The political The utilitarian The mass education motive The motive for excellence in education
Slide 4:The Curriculum: Different Dimensions
Slide 5:The Traditional Versus Modern Dimension of the Curriculum
Slide 6:Traditional Schools Traditional schools defined curriculum as a group of subjects arranged in a certain sequence peculiar to the subject field itself for the purpose of instruction. Unique needs and interests have been placed second to the common needs of all.
Slide 7:Modern Dimension of Curriculum The modern dimension of curriculum consists of all experiences for learning which are planned and organized by the school. It is composed of the actual experiences and activities of learners inside or outside the classroom under the guidance of the teacher and for which the school accepts responsibility.
Definitions of Curriculum Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to bring about desired out-comes in school and out-of-school situations or a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting.
Slide 9:Curriculum Planning A Curriculum Plan is the advance arrangement of learning opportunities for a particular population of learners. A Curriculum Guide is a written curriculum.
Slide 10:Curriculum Planning A Curriculum Planning is the process whereby the arrangement of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created.
Slide 11:Curriculum Planning It is the process of preparing for the duties of teaching, deciding upon goals and emphases, determining curriculum content, selecting learning resources and classroom procedures, evaluating progress, and looking toward next steps.
Slide 12:Curriculum Development It is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing, and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interests of learners and the nature of the society or community.
Slide 13:Curriculum Laboratory Curriculum Laboratory is a place or workshop where curriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners of curriculum. Resource Unit is a collection or suggested learning activities and materials organized around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilize in planning, developing, and evaluating a learning unit.
Slide 14:Parts of Resource Unit Introduction or short explanation of the importance of the topic; Objectives or anticipated outcomes; Content of the unit; Unit Activities; Evaluation; and Bibliography of useful materials.
Slide 15:Course of Study It is an official guide prepared for use by the administrators, supervisors, and teachers of a particular school system as an aid to teaching a given subject or areas of study for a given level or grade, combinations of grades or other designated class or group of learners.
Slide 16:Course of Study It usually includes the following: Aims of the course; The expected outcomes; The scope and nature of materials to be studied;
Slide 17:Course of Study 4. Suitable instructional aids; 5. Textbooks; 6. Supplementary activities; 7. Teaching methods; and 8. Techniques of evaluation of achievements.
Slide 18:Two Schools of Thought on Curriculum Development
Slide 19:Two Schools of Thought on Curriculum Development Two schools of thought predominated throughout the history of curriculum development; the essentialist school the progressive school
Slide 20:The Essentialist School It considers the curriculum as something rigid consisting of discipline subjects. It considers all learners as much as the same and it aims to fit the learner into the existing social order and thereby maintain the status quo. Its major motivation is discipline and considers freedom as an outcome and not means of education.
Slide 21:The Essentialist School Its approach is authoritative and the teachers role is to assign lessons and recite recitations. It is book-centered and the methods recommended are memory work, mastery of facts and skills, and development of abstract intelligence.
Slide 22:The Essentialist School It has no interest in social action and life activities. Its measurement of outcomes are standard tests based on subject matter mastery.
Slide 23:The Progressive School It conceives of the curriculum as something flexible based on areas of interest. It is learner-centered, having in mind that no two persons are alike. Its factor of motivation is individual achievement believing that persons are naturally good.
Slide 24:The Progressive School The role of the teacher is to stimulate direct learning process. It uses a life experience approach to fit the student for future social action.
Slide 25:The Progressive School Constant revision of aims and experimental techniques of learning and teaching are imperatives in curriculum development in order to create independent thinking, initiative, self-reliance, individuality, self-expression and activity in the learner.
Slide 26:The Progressive School Its measurements of outcome are now devices taking into consideration subject matter and personality values.
Slide 27:Different Theories Conflicting philosophies of education have influenced curriculum principles and practices. A number of self-evident educational truths in the past are now seen to be rather educational myths, such as: teachers know, children or learners dont; all learners should be treated alike.
Slide 28:Different Theories The fundamental concepts of some curricula have changed. In many areas, new methodologist programmed instruction, computer-assisted instruction, tutorials, large-and-
small-group instruction, and a variety of individualized instruction procedures have been developed.
Slide 29:Different Emphasis There is the curricular emphasis upon subject matter for the mind, with priority in value to literature, intellectual history, ideas of religion, philosophy, studies. There is the curricular emphasis on observable fact, the world of things.
Slide 30:Different Emphasis Another curricular emphasis is the school which defends its purpose through the tenets of scholasticism. A curricular emphasis that is worth mentioning is that school which stresses the importance of experience-process.
Slide 31:Different Emphasis A recent curricular emphasis is that of existing choice. The learner must learn skills, acquire knowledge, and make decisions.
Slide 32:Curriculum Development in the Philippines
Slide 33:Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum development in the Philippines touched on the religion, political, economic, and social influences and events that took place in the country. Colonial rule in the Philippines tailored the curriculum to serve colonial goals and objectives.
Slide 34:Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Pre-Spanish Curriculum The Spanish-devised Curriculum The American-devised Curriculum The Curriculum During the Commonwealth The Japanese-devised Curriculum
Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Curriculum During the Liberation Period The Curriculum During the Philippine Republic Curriculum in The New Society Education
Slide 36:Curriculum Development in the Philippines Language Science And Technology Arts And Culture Sports
Slide 37:The Pre-Spanish Curriculum The Filipino possessed a culture of their own. They had contacts with other foreign peoples from Arabia, India, China, Indo-China and Borneo. The inhabitants were a civilized people, possessing their systems of writing, laws and moral standards in a wellorganized system of government.
Slide 38:The Pre-Spanish Curriculum As shown in the rule of the barangay, their code of laws-the Code of Kalantiao and Maragtas-their belief in the Bathala, and the solidarity of the family were obedience and respect had been practiced.
Slide 39:The Spanish-devised Curriculum The Spanish missionaries aim to control of the Filipinos, body and soul. The curriculum then consisted of the three Rs-reading, writing and religion to attain goals were the acceptance of Catholicism and the acceptance of Spanish rule.
Slide 40:The Spanish-devised Curriculum The schools were parochial or convent schools. The main reading materials were the cartilla, the caton and the catecismo. The method of instructions was mainly individual memorization.
Slide 41:The American-devised Curriculum The motive of the American was conquering the Filipinos not only physically but also intellectually. The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions of America and her hierarchy of values. English was the medium of instruction.
Slide 42:The American-devised Curriculum The primary curriculum prescribed for the Filipinos consisted of three grades which provides training in two aspects. (1) body training-physical education (2) Mental training-English, nature study, and arithmetic.
Slide 43:The Curriculum During the Commonwealth The period of the Commonwealth (1935-1946) may be considered as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine curriculum. The educational leaders expanded the curriculum by introducing course in farming, domestic science, etc.
Slide 44:The Curriculum During the Commonwealth Commonwealth Act 586, also known as Educational Act of 1940, reorganized the elementary school system. This measured ushered the beginning of the decline of the efficiency of elementary education.
Slide 45:The Japanese-devise