Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation

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Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation. 報告者 : 廖芝瑩 林毓晏 李岱芬. Outline. Introduction The Self : A Delicate Category Two Construals of the Self Consequences of an Independent or an Interdependent View of the Self - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation

Culture and the Self: Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and Motivation: OutlineIntroductionThe Self: A Delicate CategoryTwo Construals of the SelfConsequences of an Independent or an Interdependent View of the Self Consequences for CognitionConsequences for EmotionConsequences for MotivationConclusionsSummaryConstrual - How individuals perceive, comprehend, and interpret the world around them. -Different cultures have different construals of self, others, and self*others. -Influence cognition, emotion, and motivation.Difference that exist in the specific content, structure, and functioning of the self-systems Asian cultures VS. American cultures

IntroductionThe differences in life - American: I am beautiful100 times -Japan: She/He is beautiful. - What make the difference between countries?Divergent construals of the self

tied to the implicit, normative tasks that various cultures hold for what people should be doingAmericanJapaneseAttend to the selfAttend to othersAppreciation of ones difference from othersFit in othersImportance of asserting the selfImportance of harmonious interdependence IntroductionMonoculture approach to the selfThe purpose of the paper -Construals of the self, others, self*others influence is reflected in differences among cultures -Compare an independent view of the self with interdependent view -How these divergent views of the self can influence on cognition, emotion, and motivation. IntroductionThe self viewed as interdependent: -Focal the other or the self-in-relation-to-other in individual experience. -Cognition: Knowledge representation involved in social and nonsocial thinking are influenced by attentiveness to the relevant others in the social context. -Behavior: situationally bound -Emotion and motive: shaped and governed by a consideration of the reactions of othersIntroductionLimited: -The prototypical American view of the self: white, middle-class men, Western European ethnic -View of the self is assumed to be universalSelf-construals has two important consequence: -Questions about the universality assumed of cognition, emotion, and motivation. -Precise role of the self in regulating behavior

The self: A Delicate CategoryUniversal aspects of the self -Physically distinct and separable from others -Ecological self -Awareness of internal activity: private selfDivergent aspects of the self -Specific to particular cultures -Individual VS. relationshipTwo Construals of the self: Independent and Interdependent

Two Construals of the self: Independent and Interdependent

Two Construals of the self: Independent and Interdependent Conceptual representations of the self

Consequences of an Independent or an Interdependent View of the SelfSelf-system -assortment of self-regulatory schemata -instrumental in the regulation of interpersonal processesAffect regulationMotivating persons

Culture and the self:Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and MotivationPart TwoConsequences for Cognitionself-systems& vs. the self and the other

we assume that how people think in a social situation cannot be easily separated from what they think about.self, others, or social relationshipsConsequences for CognitionMore interpersonal knowledgeself-in-relation-to-othersKitayama, Markus, Tummala, Kurokawa, and Kato (1990)

Consequences for CognitionContext-specific knowledge of self and other hierarchical structure vs. self in general

Shweder & Bourne (1984)Indians & AmericanshomeparentsschoolpeerspublicstrangershomeparentsschoolpeerspublicstrangersConsequences for CognitionContext-specific knowledge of self and otherJ. G. Miller (1984)Indians & AmericansIndians(?)Cousins (1989)TST3

versionoriginalmodifiedsituationsgeneralspecificsampleWho Am I?me at home.Japanese answerI play tennis on the weekend.xAmerican answerI am optimistic.I am sometimes lazy at home.original TSTConsequences for CognitionBasic cognition in an interpersonal contextcreativity & reasoning(counterfactual & thinking style & mode of thought)creativity&(fluency) vs. T. Y. Liu & Hsu (1974)counterfactualBloom (1981, 1984)Au (1983)BloomMoser (1989)BloomConsequences for CognitionBasic cognition in an interpersonal context(ex.SAT) & BloomConsequences for CognitionBasic cognition in an interpersonal contextthinking styleChiu (1972)American children vs. Chinese childreninferential-categorical style vs. relational-contextual stylemode of thoughtBruner (1986)paradigmatic (abstraction and analyzing) vs. narrative (establishing a connection)Consequences for EmotionRosaldo (1984)feelingLutz (1988) & Consequences for EmotionEgo-focused versus other-focused emotionsego focusedother focusedblockingthe satisfactionthe confirmationsensitive to the othertaking the perspective of the otherattempting to promote interdependence & self-defininginternal attributesassert them in publicconfirm them in privateone's interdependencethe reciprocal exchanges of well-intended actions further cooperative social behaviorindependent selvesinterdependent selvesConsequences for EmotionEgo-focused emotionsfoster and create independenceMatsumoto, Kudoh, Scherer, and Wallbott (1988) vs. ego-focusedego-focusedConsequences for EmotionEgo-focused emotionsfoster and create independenceMatsumoto (1989)ego-focused emotionsMiyake, Campos, Kagan, and Bradshaw (1986) vs. Bond (1986)Consequences for EmotionEgo-focused emotionsfoster and create independenceMatsumoto et al. (1988) Stipek et al. (1989)Consequences for EmotionOther-focused emotionscreate and foster interdependence()Russell (1983)activation & pleasantnessConsequences for EmotionOther-focused emotionscreate and foster interdependenceKitayama & Markus (1990)Russell20item10item10item

& ego-focused & other-focusedinterpersonal engagementlowinterpersonal engagementhighego-focused emotionsother-focused emotionsConsequences for EmotionOther-focused emotionscreate and foster interdependenceKitayama & Markus (1990)ego-focusedambivalent, other focused

Consequences for EmotionOther-focused emotionscreate and foster interdependenceKitayama & Markus (1990) & ego-focused emotions & other-focused emotionsor & positive ego-focused emotions & negative ego-focused emotions & other-focused emotionsCulture and the Self." Implications for Cognition, Emotion, and MotivationPart Three ,,,self-enhancementself-consistencyself-verificationself-affirmationself-actualization

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