CULTIVATION OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA

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Transcript of CULTIVATION OF ARTEMISIA ANNUA

Microsoft PowerPoint - Antony_Ellman [Compatibility Mode]Antony Ellman Natural Resources Institute
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Geographic Spread
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Yield Trends
DRY MATTER PRODUCTION (t/ha)
ARTEMISININ CONTENT (% dry weight)
EXTRACTED ARTEMISININ (kg/ha)
Wild Plants 0.5 - 1.0 0 01 - 0 3 0 5 - 1 0Wild Plants 0.5 1.0 0.01 - 0.3 0.5 - 1.0
Varietal selections 1.0 - 1.5 0.4 - 0.6 2.0 - 4.0
Fast track 2 0 4 0 2 0 5 0 6 0 12 0
Hybrids 1.5 - 2.0 1.0 - 1.5 3.0 - 5.0
Fast-track molecular breeding
6.0 - 12.0 (2012-15 targets)
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Production Methods
PRODUCTION OPPORTUNITIES RISKSPRODUCTION METHOD
Low yield Uncertain quality
Loss of genetic diversity
Commercial plantation
mechanisation Use of purchased inputs Control of quality and supply
q Geographic concentration Poor management Small farmer exclusion
Artemisinin Conference, Madagascar, 12–14 October 2010 17
ARTEMISININ Demand Trends
YEAR Tonnes Artemisinin Hectares Artemisia requiredYEAR Tonnes Artemisinin (indicative figures)
Hectares Artemisia required 1 Low yield 2 Medium yield 3 High yield
2010 90 30,000 22,500 15,000 2011 120 40,000 30,000 17,5002011 120 40,000 30,000 17,500 2012 135 45,000 35,750 16,500 2015 150 50,000 37,500 15,000 2020 120 40 000 30 000 10 0002020 120 40,000 30,000 10,000
1 Low yield 2 Medium yield 3 High yield
Planting material Conventional selection Improved hybrids Fast track breeding
ASSUMPTIONS
Supplementary irrigation, fertiliser, agrochemicals
Expected yields 3kg/ha 4kg/ha 6kg/ha rising to 12kg/ha
Artemisinin Conference, Madagascar, 12–14 October 2010 18
(extracted artemisinin/ha)
OPTIONS OPPORTUNITIES RISKSOPTIONS OPPORTUNITIES RISKS Geographic distribution
Total global demand could be met by one producer country
Climatic/environmental disasters Decimation by pest and disease Monopolistic dominance
Varietal choice Planted area could be reduced by dependence on few HYVs
Same risks as above, plus: Loss of biodiversity Field results not yet proven High costs exclude small farmers
Monopolistic control Greater management demands Small farmers excluded
Production could be concentrated in a few commercial estates
Cultivation method
Artemisinin Conference, Madagascar, 12–14 October 2010 19
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Conclusions
Maintain wide range of genetic materialsMaintain wide range of genetic materials
Spread production opportunity between several countries and agro-climatic zones
Expand to new countries only where there is some comparative advantage
Promote high-yielding varieties only where input supplies and management skills assured
Maintain a mix of smallholder and commercial production
Intensify research and extension services
Optimise productivity of Artemisia cultivation to minimise cost of leaf
Synthetic artemisinin, until proven cheaper and more effective than natural
Artemisinin Conference, Madagascar, 12–14 October 2010 20
product, should supplement not supplant plant-based production
ARTEMISIA CULTIVATION Selected references
WHO Monograph on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices for ArtemisiaWHO Monograph on Good Agricultural and Collection Practices for Artemisia annua L (WHO, 2006)
G P d ti M l f A t i iGrowers Production Manual for Artemisia annua (East African Botanicals Ltd, 2005)
Artemisia annua: A Growing Solution for Madagascar g g (Bionexx, 2009)
Cultivation of Artemisia annua in Africa and Asia (Antony Ellman Outlooks on Pest Management Volume 21(Antony Ellman, Outlooks on Pest Management, Volume 21, Number 2, April 2010)
Artemisinin Conference, Madagascar, 12–14 October 2010 21
THANK YOU