Culinary Concepts Beverage Management Culinary Techniques Advanced Pastry Arts Basic Baking

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Transcript of Culinary Concepts Beverage Management Culinary Techniques Advanced Pastry Arts Basic Baking

Culinary TechniquesBasic Baking
Culinary Techniques
Unit Objective
Understand the different types of yeast breads and rolls and quick breads.
Understanding how to store ingredients used in the bakery.
Culinary Techniques
Terms and Definitions
Terms and definitions related to this unit’s objectives are introduced as they apply throughout the unit.
Culinary Techniques
Leavening agents
Powdered chemicals
Natural agents
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Flours
All-purpose flour (milled hard and soft wheats)
Pastry flour (milled soft wheat)
Cake flour (milled, unenriched soft wheat)
Whole wheat flour (milled whole, hard wheat kernels)
Specialty flour (containing wheat and/or non-wheat flours
Culinary Techniques
Solid fats and oils
Objective 2
Salt
Fine
Coarse
Milk and other liquids (cont.)
Buttermilk
Flavoring agents (cont.)
Leavening agents
To add flavor
To affect shelf life
Flours (cont.)
Fats, shortenings, and oils
Fats, shortenings, and oils (cont.)
To increase nutritional value
Eggs
Eggs (cont.)
Sugar and other sweeteners
To sweeten
Sugar and other sweeteners (cont.)
To improve flavor
To increase shelf life
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Salt
To add flavor
To give structure
Milk and other liquids
To aid in leavening
Flavoring materials
Preservatives—To retard destructive organisms, spoilage, and staleness
Culinary Techniques
Beating
Blending
Creaming
Sifting
Stirring
Whipping
Temperature of ingredients
Yeast breads
Yeast rolls
Add yeast to warm water.
Note: The temperature must not exceed 110°F or the yeast organisms will be killed.
Do not stir.
Stir until yeast is dissolved.
Blend active dry yeast with dry ingredients.
Culinary Techniques
Keep yeast at its best growing temperature range (between 80°F and 85°F) during the fermentation process.
Steps for Using Yeast
Straight dough method
Sponge dough method
Distributes ingredients uniformly
Forms a smooth dough
Distributes yeast cells evenly so that they will receive proper nutrition
Develops the gluten in the dough
*
Assembling raw materials
Finishing Touches for Yeast Breads
For a shiny, golden crust, brush with egg or egg white and water mixture.
Sprinkle herbs and spices on top of the butter.
For a more tender crust, brush with milk.
To add a crispiness to the crust, brush with water.
Slice the top of the loaf about 1⁄4 deep down the center.
Culinary Techniques
Objective 12
Shape should be well proportioned
Crust should be evenly browned and free from cracks or bulges
Color should be characteristic of ingredients used and free of dark streaks
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Objective 12
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Volume
Uniformity
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Biscuit method
Creaming method
Objective 16
Objective 17
Golden brown, well-rounded shape
Tender, moderately smooth crust free of excess flour
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Standards of Quality for Biscuits (cont.)
Flaky grain with medium-fine and even cells; pull apart in thin sheets
Tender internal texture, slightly moist and light
Pleasing flavor with no bitterness
Culinary Techniques
Standards of Quality for Muffins and Breads
Uniform well-rounded top, free of peaks and cracks; large in proportion to weight
Uniform golden brown color
Tender crust that is pebbly or slightly rough and shiny
Tender, moist, and light internal texture; round even cells free of tunnels
Pleasing flavor with no bitterness
Culinary Techniques
Standards of Quality for Cornmeal Muffins and Corn Bread
Uniform shape, no peaks, medium rim with slightly rounded top for muffins
Uniform size for types being made
Uniform golden brown color
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Standards of Quality for Cornmeal Muffins and Corn Bread (cont.)
Objective 19
Round, even cells with slightly open grain
Crisp, tender, and slightly open texture
Pleasing corn flavor, not rancid
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Objective 20
Leavening agents
Unopened dry yeast will last up to 1 year in the cupboard; check the use-by date.
Use opened jars of yeast within 6 months.
Cake yeast should be used within 6 days if refrigerated or 6 weeks if frozen.
Store baking powder and baking soda in the cupboard; observe use-by date.
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Flours
Use flour within 8 months.
Store whole grain or specialty flours in the refrigerator for up to 6 months.
Flour may be stored in the freezer for up to 1 year.
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Liquids
Fluid milk, buttermilk, and cream are stored in closed containers under refrigeration.
Canned milk and nonfat dry milk in unopened containers may be held at room temperature for several months.
Canned milk must be refrigerated after it has been opened.
Culinary Techniques
Objective 20
Fats, shortenings, and oils
Store solid fats in the refrigerator for up to 2 months or in the freezer for 7-8 months.
Keep solid fats tightly wrapped.
Unopened shortening can be kept in the cupboard for up to 1 year.
Keep opened shortening in a cool cupboard or in refrigerator for 4 to 5 months.
Culinary Techniques
Objective 20
Store margarine in the refrigerator and observe the use-by date.
Store vegetable oils in a cool, dry cupboard for 5-6 months.
Other oils are more perishable; store in refrigerator after opening.
Smell all opened oils before using to check for rancid aroma.
Culinary Techniques
Eggs
Do not purchase cracked or broken eggs.
Store shell eggs in the refrigerator in their carton for 3 to 5 weeks after the sell-by date.
Egg yolks, whites, and dried eggs must be refrigerated in tightly covered containers.
Store egg substitutes in the refrigerator for up to 10 days; use within 3 days once opened.
Culinary Techniques
Objective 20
Sugar and other sweeteners
Store in a cool, dry place for up to 2 years.
Use within 6-8 months after opening.
Salt
Store in an airtight container in a cool, dry place.
Salt will keep indefinitely in dry storage.
Culinary Techniques
Objective 20
Flavoring materials
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Prepare dough according to recipe.
Ferment dough.
Refrigerate at 36°F to 38°F overnight.
Note: Temperature must be low enough to retard yeast action.
Remove from refrigerator, proof, and bake.
Culinary Techniques
Objective 21
Long-term (2 to 4 weeks)
Follow steps 1-3 of short-term storage method; then freeze individual units.
After dough is frozen, wrap with moisture- and vapor-proof material and store until needed.
Remove from freezer and thaw in refrigerator for 24 hours prior to baking.
Remove from refrigerator, proof, and bake.
Culinary Techniques
Objective 22
Short-term—Store in a closed cabinet at room temperature; suggested storage life is one week.
Long-term—After rolls have been baked and cooled, wrap with a moisture- and vapor-proof material and freeze until needed.
Culinary Techniques