CST Air Pollution Impact Chiangmai

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... 1 10 06 63 31 14 4 2 2 2 25 55 52 2 4 2552 1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 5 5 6 10 11 3 12 13 13 14 2549-255116 4 19 20 23 5 24 24 ( )27 28 28 30 1 1 . . ( ) 2 1. 2. 3. 1. - - - - 2. 3. 4. 5. 3 30 1-30 2553 1. 2. 3. - - 40.216 14 2551 148,310 71,514 ( 2551) 4 () 2550 11 1 162 273 4,289 4 - ( : 2551) 5 2 2 1. (Natural Sources) 2. (Man-Made Sources) 2 (1) (Mobile Source) (2) (StationarySources) () SO2NOxCO () SO2 NOx () 6 () () () 10 3 - - - LPG ( ) 200-300 7 10 (Carbon monoxide : CO) (Carbonmonoxide:CO) (Hemoglobin) 200-250 (Carboxyhaemoglobin:CoHb) CoHb CoHb (Nitrogen dioxide : NO2) (N2O) (NO) ( N2O3) (NO2) (N2O4) (N2O5) NO NO2 (NO) (NO2) NO + O3 ===>NO2+O 230/ 190/ 1,300-1,800 / 8 (Sulfur dioxide : SO2) CFCs (Chlorofluoro carbons ) CFCs Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs CFCs CFCs CFCs CFCs (Suspended Particulate Matter : SPM) 0.002( ) 500( 50 ) ( 10 ) ( 100) 2-3 0.5 9 (Photochemicalreaction) (Smoke) (fume) (mist) 30% 70-90% 60% 10 40% 10 ..2535 2 1. AIRVIRO AIRVIRO 51 5 ( Real-time Monitoring ) 2. (Monitoring Stations) ( ) 11 1. ( ) 3 4 2.4 5 5 ( ) 2 (UrbanArea) 50 (Road Side) 10 ( ) ( ) 10 2 2 (Sampling probe) 1.5 () 6 1 12 3 1-2 (HealthImpactAssessment) (HealthImpactAssessment:HIA) (ParticipleEnvironmentalImpactAssessment: PAR-EIA) (Key Stakeholder Analysis) Jain Polman (2003) (ParticipatoryEnvironmentalImpact Assessment) The EspooEIAConvention (Screening) (Scoping) (Assessing Impact) (Proposing Impact Mitigation Measures) 13 (MixMethods) (Triangulation) 1. (Environmental and Health Scoping) 4 2. (Interview) 4 1 3. (FocusGroup) 2 4. (Content Validation and Agreement) (Consultation Meeting) 14 1 2541-2551 2 2545-2551 785,571 791,964 709,837 920,959 762,194 826,266 850,713 -100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 900,000 1,000,000 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549 2550 25511,078 1,164 893 951 927 942 828 -200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549 2550 255115 1 2 2541-2551 3 2549-2551 813,058 .. 2550 29 2550 120 2550 50% 3 2549-2551 a+aJoaa.Jaavvn+aa.aa+avvuv.lr+vvvn +u.ara+lulv.u.+.vn z+z svvr zs ..+u..+.au. .a..+a.u.+a+..a. ...+.:+..+u .aa..:+ . .++.:..+a aav.... .+aa.+.: .!+. ..a:.a. .a+.:+.v.....a ++.+a .a+...a..... +.+a .a+...a..... +.+a .a+...a..... .aa..:+.:+++ .a.. c....,...c....... : ..a.. c....,...c....... : :s a - a : : - -- : s:s ss : .a..aa. .++.:..+a aav.... .+aa.+.: .!+. v..a+.. ..a:.a. .a+.:+. v.....a . + +.+a .a+...a..... +.+a .a+...a..... +.+a .a+...a..... +.+a .a+...a..... :.a..aa. : ... ::.a..aa. ... :a a- :- :a s ::-: :a a a a a a - s a s .aa.a .++ . v..a+.a ..a:.a. .a+.:+. v.....a ++.+a.a+...a.....+.+a.a+...a..... .aa.++a.+ . .av+u :.a.aa..:. .a:... - s a: -- :s :- -: - - a: -s: : :-- uauai. aavauv+vnuvaluaaa+ c.:.|:.. c-.:-. (an.uava+a i v.a. zsss: aaav+auvv+a v i.saaJa a.+aaauvv z++ a.vlvava.v z. aavauv+vnauvaluaaa+ c.:.|:.. c-.:-. (an.uavv i v.a. zsss: aaav+auvv+av .s aaJa a.+aaauvv s++ a.vlvava.v s. aavavaaaav+auvv+av .s aaJa +aaauvv i+.+++ a.vlvava.v a.a.vv. v s+ . aavaa+aJaa.va vaa. s+ (a+avas..uu.av+: s. aaav.auaa+aavavav s a+ua aJ.sn vav i++ a+ua (n.a. +.s a n s +auJaanaa: s. oaa..aaavava +u.. .uaa.vv. (a.vv. - +: 19-22 2550 1. (% ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1. 1.1 CatalyticConverter 1.2 CatalyticConverter 98 31 0.66 4.9 10.20 61.29 190 699 23.46 41.94 83.6 85.5 - - 2. ( ) (% ) ( ) ( )

2.1 2 2.2 4 10 117 0.03 1.0 30 0.85 9310 465 50 - 86.4 83.6 - - 3. (%) ( ) ( ) 3.1 ( ) 3.2 121 122 66.9 48.4 74.38 45.08 89.2 94.1 3.31 13.11 1. Catalytic Converter ( 1 .. 2536) 1.5% 200 2. Catalytic Converter ( 1 .. 2536) 4.5% 600 3. 4.5 % 10,000 30 % 4. 50 ( ) 5. 95 100 ( 0.5 45 ) 6. 4 ( = 0) 10-13 2551 (% ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1. 1.1 1 . 2536 1.2 1 . 2536 -31.. 2549 1.3 1 . 2550 25 76 6 3.02 1.25 0.70 24.00 23.68 16.67 615 263 92 24.00 51.31 33.33 85.4 83.6 82.7 - - - ( ) (% ) ( ) ( ) 1. 2 1.1 1 . 25492 4 2.1 1 . 2549 2.2 1 . 2549- 31 . 2551 7 89 23 2.56 0.69 0.29 14.29 - - 1115 192 161 14.29 - - 90.7 84.6 84.3 - - - (%) ( ) ( ) 1. 2. ( ) 3. 35 82 117 63.0 58.8 42.8 68.57 57.31 31.62 94.7 91.2 96.7 25.71 3.66 17.95 19 4 (MixedMethods) (ParticipatoryEnvironmentalImpactAssessment:PAR-EIA) (Health Impact Assessment: HIA) 20 (Participatory Environmental Impact Assessment: PAR-EIA) 1. (Key Stakeholders Analysis) 1. 2. 3. (NGO) 4.