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NOTE CAREFULLYThe following document was developed by

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WARNINGThis material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of the Centre for Learning Innovation, DET, pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act.

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Gill Sans Bold

Engineering StudiesHSC Course Stage 6

Civil structures

ES/S6 HSC 41090

P0021791

AcknowledgmentsThis publication is copyright Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, however it may contain material from other sources which is not owned by Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production would like to acknowledge the following people and organisations whose material has been used. Board of Studies NSW Hopleys Trusses Kingston Dugan Kurth RTA

All reasonable efforts have been made to obtain copyright permissions. All claims will be settled in good faith. Development: Revision: Coordination: Edit: Illustrations: DTP: David Jackson, John Shirm, Ian Webster Josephine Wilms, Stephen Russell Jeff Appleby John Cook, Jeff Appleby, Stephen Russell Tom Brown, David Evans Nick Loutkovsky, Carolina Barbieri

Copyright in this material is reserved to the Crown in the right of the State of New South Wales. Reproduction or transmittal in whole, or in part, other than in accordance with provisions of the Copyright Act, is prohibited without the written authority of Learning Materials Production. Learning Materials Production, Open Training and Education Network Distance Education, NSW Department of Education and Training, 1999. 51 Wentworth Rd. Strathfield NSW 2135. Revised 2002

Module contents

Subject overview ................................................................................ iii Module overview................................................................................viiModule components .................................................................. ix Module outcomes .......................................................................x Indicative time ........................................................................... xi Resource requirements............................................................. xii

Icons

.............................................................................................. xv

Glossary............................................................................................xvii Directive terms................................................................................ xxv Part 1: Civil structures development .................................................................. 149 Part 2: Civil structures mechanics and hydraulics ........................................... 169 Part 3: Civil structures materials ......................................................................... 193 Part 4: Civil structures communication .............................................................. 143 Part 5: Civil structures engineering report......................................................... 133 Bibliography.......................................................................................35 Module evaluation ............................................................................39

i

ii

Subject overview

Engineering Studies Preliminary CourseHousehold appliances examines common appliances found in the home. Simple appliances are analysed to identify materials and their applications. Electrical principles, researching methods and techniques to communicate technical information are introduced. The first student engineering report is completed undertaking an investigation of materials used in a household appliance. Landscape products investigates engineering principles by focusing on common products, such as lawnmowers and clothes hoists. The historical development of these types of products demonstrates the effect materials development and technological advancements have on the design of products. Engineering techniques of force analysis are described. Orthogonal drawing methods are explained. An engineering report is completed that analyses lawnmower components. Braking systems uses braking components and systems to describe engineering principles. The historical changes in materials and design are investigated. The relationship between the internal structure of iron and steel and the resulting engineering properties of those materials is detailed. Hydraulic principles are described and examples provided in braking systems. Orthogonal drawing techniques are further developed. An engineering report is completed that requires an analysis of a braking system component.

iii

Bio-engineering looks at both engineering principles and also the scope of the bio-engineering profession. Careers and current issues in this field are explored. Engineers as managers and ethical issues confronted by the bio engineer are considered. An engineering report is completed that investigates a current bioengineered product and describes the related issues that the bio-engineer would need to consider before, during and after this product development. Irrigation systems is the elective topic for the preliminary modules. The historical development of irrigation systems is described and the impact of these systems on society discussed. Hydraulic analysis of irrigation systems is explained. The effect on irrigation product range that has occurred with the introduction of polymer is detailed. An engineering report on an irrigation system is completed.

iv

HSC Engineering Studies modulesCivil structures examines engineering principles as they relate to civil structures, such as bridges and buildings. The historical influences of engineering, the impact of engineering innovation, and environmental implications are discussed with reference to bridges. Mechanical analysis of bridges is used to introduce concepts of truss analysis and stress/strain. Material properties and application are explained with reference to a variety of civil structures. Technical communication skills described in this module include assembly drawing. The engineering report requires a comparison of two engineering solutions to solve the same engineering situation. Personal and public transport uses bicycles, motor vehicles and trains as examples to explain engineering concepts. The historical development of cars is used to demonstrate the developing material list available for the engineer. The impact on society of these developments is discussed. The mechanical analysis of mechanisms involves the effect of friction. Energy and power relationships are explained. Methods of testing materials, and modifying material properties are examined. A series of industrial manufacturing processes is described. Electrical concepts such