Credibility Kim Miller-Davis English 1301. LIAR, LIAR, Pants on Fire!
Embed Size (px)
Transcript of Credibility Kim Miller-Davis English 1301. LIAR, LIAR, Pants on Fire!
CredibilityKim Miller-DavisEnglish 1301LIAR, LIAR, Pants on Fire!
Do You Remember that One?
It was probably one of the worse taunts of our childhoods---a name no one wanted to be labeled with.And yet
Lies are Everywhere
The World is filled with Lies, Lies, Lies
So how do we know whom to trustandhow do we get others to trust us?Thats a hard question to answer.
In Politics, Religion, and Relationships,There are not any clear guidelines to follow.
But in academic composition, everything is different.There are clear guidelines for establishing and evaluating honesty
Think of the chorus to a popular Eagles Song:
You can't hide your lyin' eyes And your smile is a thin disguise I thought by now you'd realize There ain't no way to hide your lyin' eyes
A lack of honesty in an academic composition is easy to spot and impossible to hide.
Here, Honesty is called Credibility Credibility is the quality or power of inspiring belief
----Websters Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary
Writers must have credibility (or the trust of their readers) in order to convince their readers that their argument is valid.
When they dont, the argument falls.
This is not the responsibility of the reader. This is the responsibility of the writer.
This might seem difficult if you are writing a paper where you are not using sources.
You Must:Use an Academic VoiceUse an Authoritative VoiceUse a variety of sentence structuresProvide clear explanations and connectionsAvoid Falsehoods, Fabrications, & DistortionsBe Knowledgeable & ClearUse Quality Academic Sources
Use Academic VoiceNo First Person (I, Me, My, Mine)Use We as a society or culture sparinglyNo Second Person (You, Your, Yours)
Academic VoiceDont Talk to the reader by lecturing, preaching, or giving some speech on how life should be.
Academic VoiceUse Collegiate Word Choice, Good Grammar, and Accurate spelling
Make friends with your Dictionary &Thesaurus!
Academic Voice Proofread!When you leave mistakes in your paper, you look foolish and lose credibility.
Use Authoritative VoiceAn authoritative voice is the tone that the writer takes to demonstrate thorough knowledge.
It doesnt mean that you have to yell, use ALL CAPS, or show any other sort of aggressive posturing.
It means that you are clear and sure of both your position and your evidence
Examples of Weak Voice Legalizing marijuana might help ease our economic issues.
A good reason to support Romney is his stance on government health care.
Some people believe that global warming is to blame for the destruction of coral reefs.
The use of cell phones by teens can be a positive thing.
Euthanasia is seen as mercy killing.
Standardized testing seems to be an issue in schools.Examples of Authoritative VoiceLegalizing marijuana will benefit our economy substantially.
Americans should support Romney because he despises government run health-care, too.
Global warming destroys the coral reef systems around the world.
Teen cell phone usage is beneficial.
Euthanasia is a merciful form of assisted-death.
Standardized testing causes issues throughout school systems.
Sentence Fluency Fluency=
Using a combination of simple & complex sentence structures
Simple Jane and Jim are friends. They have a dog. The dogs name is Spot. The dog likes to play ball. Jane and Jim play ball with Spot.
Complex Jane and Jim are friends who like to play ball with their dog, Spot.
Evidence Needs Explanation & ConnectionClaim=OJ Simpson was guilty of murdering his ex-wife.Evidence=He had a history of domestic violence and had beat Nicole Simpson many times.
Wrong! Because the evidence needs to be explained and connected, the reader is left confused.
Explaining & ConnectingClaim=OJ Simpson was guilty of murdering his ex-wife.Evidence=His history of domestic violence is one of the major factors that points to his guilt.Explain & Connect= Throughout the years OJ and Nicole were together, there are multiple documented cases of abuse including pictures of the brutal battering of her face and body. Through the reports of her friends and family, Nicole lived in fear that some day he would murder her in a fit of rage. Nicoles fears were in line with research on domestic violence murders as the most lethal time period for abused women is when their abuser thinks that they are leaving. On the night of Nicoles murder, OJ believed she was involved in a romantic relationship with Ron Goldman and was leaving him for good. And so he killed her.
Avoid Falsehoods, Fabrications, & Distortions
Avoid: Outright Falsehoods & Fabrications
Avoid: Confusing Statementshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Sy05zj0X23M&feature=related
Avoid: Argumentative Fallacies
Avoid Sources that use theseManipulative StrategiesMixing Commentary with Information and FactsDemonstration of Picking and Choosing Method of News ItemsUse of Sarcastic or Critical Ad-LibsInsertion of Incendiary Comments in Midst of News DeliveryUse of Bandwagon Techniques to Insert Personal Opinion i.e. Some People Say.Use of Expert Sources who are actually paid by the news organization. Incorporation of Either/Or Fallacious thinking through the demonization of gray areasUse of Subtle and Subliminal ImageryHeavy Reliance on Experts from one-side of the issueAvoidance or Deletion of Inconsistencies in DetailsOverwhelming Use of Pathos Capitalizing on Audience Pride through Patriotic and Religious AppealsRepetition of PlatitudesIntimidation of Guest ExpertsUse of Misleading/Non-Timely Information
Most Important Mistake to AvoidIn Academic Writing:
Faking the Funk
More Commonly Known As.
Not Knowing what Youre Talking AboutLike this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1523WCarLf8&feature=relatedAnd this:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmcZG87FmxcNo one can believe someone who is clearly making stuff up off of the top of his/her head!To Prove Your Claim, Use Credible Sources ANDUse a variety of evidence
Include multiple examples from different sources
Use statistics and other empirical research
Use studies conducted by reputable institutions Remember: If you want people to believe your argument The first step is always establishing credibility
Credibility is Earned ThroughAcademic VoiceAuthoritative VoiceA Variety of sentence structuresFull Explanations and Connections of EvidenceNo Falsehoods, Fabrications, or DistortionsTruthfulness & ClarityAcademic Sources Trustworthy News Sources