Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005. Motivation versus Emotion Emotion, a subjective sensation...

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Transcript of Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005. Motivation versus Emotion Emotion, a subjective sensation...

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Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Slide 2 Motivation versus Emotion Emotion, a subjective sensation experienced as a type of psycho-physiological arousal, is different from motivation in that it has no goal or direction connected with it. Emotions result from the interaction of the (a) perception of environmental stimuli, (b) neural/hormonal responses to these perceptions (feelings), and (c) cognitive labeling of these feelings. Motivation versus Emotion Emotion, a subjective sensation experienced as a type of psycho-physiological arousal, is different from motivation in that it has no goal or direction connected with it. Emotions result from the interaction of the (a) perception of environmental stimuli, (b) neural/hormonal responses to these perceptions (feelings), and (c) cognitive labeling of these feelings. There is a small core of emotions (6 to 8) that are uniquely associated with a specific facial expressions (Izard, 1992). This suggests that these are hard-wired in human beings. Izard, C. E. (1992). Basic emotions, relations among emotions, and emotion cognition relations. Psychological Review, 99 (3), 561-565. Definitions of Motivation and emotion retrieved from Bill Huitt at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/motivation/motivate.html Slide 3 What is emotion? Like so many psychological phenomena, emotion is easily recognized but hard to define. Most theories hold that emotion is a syndrome or complex entity with many components: physiological (autonomic nervous system), cognitive events, sensory input, behavioral correlates. Benoit, Anthony G. (2002). Emotion and Motivation. Retrieved from http://environmentalet.org/psy111/motimotion.htm What is emotion? Like so many psychological phenomena, emotion is easily recognized but hard to define. Most theories hold that emotion is a syndrome or complex entity with many components: physiological (autonomic nervous system), cognitive events, sensory input, behavioral correlates. Benoit, Anthony G. (2002). Emotion and Motivation. Retrieved from http://environmentalet.org/psy111/motimotion.htm Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Slide 4 ANGER JOY FEAR SERIOUS SADNESS SURPRISE What good is emotion? Emotions (a) prepare us for action, (b) shape our behavior (emotions are reinforcing), (c) regulate social interaction, (d) facilitate communication nonverbally, (e) facilitate adult-child relations and thus development, (f) make life worth living by adding value to experience, and (g) allow us to respond flexibly to our environment (approaching good, avoiding bad). Emotions are usually inseparable from their communication. Most people do not have a "poker face," and we generally find a person's emotional response to be obvious. Knowing how someone feels helps us evaluate how they will act. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 ANGER SADNESS SURPRISE FEAR Slide 5 MORE ABOUT EMOTIONS Emotions are largely a conscious phenomena. They involve more bodily manifestations than other conscious states. They vary along a number of dimensions: intensity, type, origin, arousal, value, self-regulation, etc. They are reputed to be antagonists of rationality. They protect us from a slavish devotion to rationality. They play an indispensable role in determining the quality of life and defining our priorities. They have a central place in moral education and moral life through conscience, empathy, and many specific moral emotions such as shame, guilt, and remourse. The are inextrictably linked to virtues. A paraphrased version of a list included in EMOTION by Ronald de Sousa. Retrived from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/emotion/ Slide 6 Three Ways to Measure Emotion Behavior screaming, facial expressions, laughing, aggression, approach/avoidance, activity level, smiling, attention/distraction, alertness, insomnia, anhedonia, etc. Body/Physical blood pressure, tears, heart rate, neural images, lie detector readings, posture, perspiration, adrenaline, muscle activity when smiling, frowning, etc. Thoughts observed indirectly through: spoken and written words on rating scales; answers to open-ended questions on surveys and during interviews; responses to projective instruments, sentence stems, etc. Emotion can interfere with many cognitive operations such as rational/logical thinking and the ability to objectively self- assess or perceive the behavior and intentions of others. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Slide 7 Newborns show only pleasure and distress. Social smiles are first seen at 2-3 months. Anger is first seen between 4 and 6 months. They are more fearful in unfamiliar places. Fear depends on strangers behavior. Stranger wariness is first seen at 6 months. Begin to identify others emotions at 6 months. Facial expression is associated with emotions. Looks to mother or father for proper emotion in unfamiliar situations beginning at 9 months. Newborns show only pleasure and distress. Social smiles are first seen at 2-3 months. Anger is first seen between 4 and 6 months. They are more fearful in unfamiliar places. Fear depends on strangers behavior. Stranger wariness is first seen at 6 months. Begin to identify others emotions at 6 months. Facial expression is associated with emotions. Looks to mother or father for proper emotion in unfamiliar situations beginning at 9 months. EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF EMOTIONS Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Click to learn more Slide 8 Fear Delight Excitement Distress Anger Disgust Elation Affection for adults Affection for children Joy Jealousy Months 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 Bridges (1932) found that emotions are rapidly differentiated from an initial capacity for excitement. Today, there is interest in genetically determined temperamental characteristics from which personality forms, such as sociability. K. M. B. Bridges, (1932). Emotional development in early infancy. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 37. Slide 9 Created by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Slide 10 Neural Pathways of Emotion Joseph LeDoux (1998) found evidence for two neural pathways in the processing of fear. The fast route is quick, inaccurate, life-saving: Sight Thalamus Amygdala The slow route is precise, complex, sluggish: Sight Thalamus Visual cortex Amygdala Route one allows for instant action and is relatively inaccurate; so it produces false positives. Route two is precise and can reduce the response to fear if the situation is appraised to be safe after all factors are considered. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Vaughan, Bell (2002). Motivation and Emotion. PPT slide retrieved from http://www.cf.ac.uk/psych/home/bellv1/conf/VaughanMotivationEmotionLecture2004.ppt#33 Related MS Word lecture at http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=fast+route+is+quick%2C+inaccurate&btnG=Search. Written permission for use granted.http://www.cf.ac.uk/psych/home/bellv1/conf/VaughanMotivationEmotionLecture2004.ppt#33http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=fast+route+is+quick%2C+inaccurate&btnG=Search Slide 11 So the Brain Executes an Emotional Shortcut In Crises We feel some emotions before we think. Some neural pathways involved in emotion bypass the cortical areas involved in thinking. Two such pathways run from the eye and ear via the thalamus to the amygdala, which is the emotional control center. This shortcut enables a quick, pre-thought emotional response before the intellect gets consciously involved. The thinking cortex can eventually override the decision of the amygdala to react. Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 Slide 12 Event Emotional Response Appraisal Zajonc / LeDoux Lazarus / Schachter Arranged by Dr. Gordon Vessels 2005 11 2 2 2 2 Do they operate separately? Concurrently? Or both? 2 2 2 2 Two Routes to Emotion Slide 13 Primary & Secondary Emotions A distinction between primary and secondary emotions has been proposed. Primary emotions are probably innate and universal and include fear, rage, surprise, happiness, joy, disgust (Ortony and Turner, 1990). Ortony, A., & Turner, T. J. (1990). What's basic about basic emotions? Psychological Review, 97, 315-331. Secondary emotions are more complex and appear to be acquired or learned (Damasio, 1999) and include optimism, love, humiliation, hope, vigilance, optimism. Damasio links secondary emotions with the orbitofrontal cortex (behind the eyes). Damasio, A.R. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Orlando: Harcourt Brace. Vaughan, Bell (2002). Motivation and Emotion. PPT slide retrieved from http://www.cf.ac.uk/psych/home/bellv1/conf/VaughanMotivationEmotionLecture2004.ppt#21 Related MS Word lecture at http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&lr=&q=fast+route+is+quick%2C+inaccurate&btnG=Search. Written permission granted. Slide 14 In 1937 emotion was linked to the limbic system by Papez. He stated that the hypothalamus, anterior thalamic nuclei, gyrus cinguli, and hippocampus elaborate functions of emotion. MacLean used the terms "limbic system" in 1952 and identified three specific subdivisions: the amygdala, septal, and thalamocingulate. He postulated that the limbic brain responds to inputs from internal and external sources. The closed circuit between the limbic system and the thalamus and hypothalamus is the Papez circuit. The fornix connects the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies of the hypothalamus, which project to the anterior nuclei of the thalamus. The nuclei of the thalamus complete the closed circuit through fibers to the hippocampus. These interconnections combine to form the neural basis of emotion. For more detail see h ttp://www.macalester.edu/~psych/whathap/UBNRP/Audition/site/anatomy%20of%20emotion%20in%20pain Hippocampal Formation Anterior Nuclei of Thalamus Gyruc Cinguli PAPEZ CIRCUIT Mamillary Body Slide 15 The Amygdala LeDoux Identified as crucial in fear Fear conditioning in animals Trace route from audition LeDoux Iden