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Crash Course!. King of the Geeks!. The Southern Colonies. 17 th and 18 th Centuries. General Characteristics of the South. The Big Ideas. General Characteristics of the South. Dominated to a degree by a plantation economy: tobacco & rice - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Crash Course!

The Southern Colonies

Crash Course!1

King of the Geeks!The Southern Colonies17th and 18th CenturiesGeneral Characteristics of the SouthThe Big IdeasGeneral Characteristics of the SouthDominated to a degree by a plantation economy: tobacco & rice Slavery in all colonies; begins as indentured servants, develops into African slaveryLarge land holdings in the hands of the favored few = aristocratic atmosphereSparsely populated: churches & schools too expensive for very small towns. Church of England most prominent, but religious toleration is common4Virginia

JamestownFounded by Virginia Company (a joint-stock company)Consisted largely of well-to-do adventurers Virginia Charter Overseas settlers given same rights of Englishmen in EnglandFoundation for American liberties; rights extended to other colonies. Colonists felt that, even in the Americas, they were still Englishmen6

JamestownA group of 104 English men and boys began the settlement.Founded by the second sons of wealthy familiesLater brought women and children with the intention to set up a permanent colony.7

Jamestown Settlement Map8

The REAL John SmithCaptain John Smith organized the colony beginning in 1608: "He who will not work shall not eat." Smith kidnapped in Dec. 1607 by Chief PowhatanSmith perhaps "saved" by Pocahantas, Powhatan's daughter, but evidence is shaky at best.9

The Jamestown NightmareOnly 40 of the original 104 survived the first yearIn 1609, another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off the coast of BermudaOnly 60 out of 400 settlers survived "starving time" of 1610-1611Gentleman colonists would not work.Settlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming.10

The Starving Time1607: 104 colonistsBy spring, 1608: 38 survived1609: 300 more immigrants arriveBy spring, 1610: 60 survived1610 1624: 10,000 immigrants arrive1624 population: 1,200Adult life expectancy: 40 yearsDeath of children before age 5: 80%What affect might this mortality rate have onMenWomenChildren11Effects of the Starving TimeMen: The men who survived were able to buy larger tracts of land, but there were fewer to work it. This increased the need for indentured servants or Indian slaves.Women: High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth (Widowarchy)Children: Fewer children to help on family farms also contribute to the need for servants.12

Reading: Our Plantation is Very Weak13

Powhatan ConfederacyPowhatan dominated a few dozen small tribes in the James River area when the English arrived.The English called all Indians in the area Powhatans.Powhatan probably saw the English as allies in his struggles to control other Indian tribes in the region.


Culture Clash in the Chesapeake Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse.General mistrust because of different cultures & languages.English raided Indian food supplies during the starving times.1610-1614 First Anglo-Powhatan WarLord De La Warr (Delaware) had orders to make war on the Indians.Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields.Peace solidified with marriage of John Rolfe and PocahontasPowhatan uprising of 1622Hundreds of Powhatan warriors descended upon English colonists in Virginia, burning settlements and plantations along the James River coming perilously close to destroying Jamestown completely.15

Culture Clash in the Chesapeake 1644-1646 Second Anglo-Powhatan WarLast effort of natives to defeat English.Indians defeated again.Peace Treaty of 1646Removed the Powhatans from their original land.Formally separated Indian and English settlement areas


John RolfeJohn Rolfe created Jamestowns tobacco crop economy: "Colony built on smoke" Rolfe introduced new tough strain of tobacco Europeans became increasingly addicted to the nicotine; Tobacco industry became cornerstone of Virginia's economyPlantation system emerged


The House of BurgessesThe House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in EnglandControl over finances, militia, etc.By the end of the 17c, H of B was able to initiate legislation.A Council appointed by royal governorMainly leading planters.Functions like House of Lords.High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.18

MarylandA Refuge for Catholics

Marys LandMaryland is FoundedKing Charles I grants 10 million acres of land to Sir George Calvert (the first Lord Baltimore) as a proprietary colony the sole possession of Calvert and his heirs.The colony was founded as a refuge for Catholics who were being persecuted in England.Baltimore's plan was to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship.Huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives.Smaller plots of land were given to Protestant settlers, which later caused a rebellion

The Anglican Church was the official religion of England at the time. Catholics paid double taxes, could not worship in public, or hold political office. A couple could not be legally married by a Catholic priest.Act for Religious TolerationGuaranteed toleration to all Christians.Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.].In one way, it was less tolerant than before the law was passed

CarolinaThe West Indies: Way Station to the Americas1670 a group of small English farmers from the W. Indies arrived in CarolinaCarolina named for King Charles IIBrought a few black slaves and the Barbados slave system with them.Carolina was granted by the King to 8 Lord ProprietorsExported wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe

Port of Charles Town, SCAlso named for Charles IIBecame the busiest port of the SouthCity with an aristocratic feel25

Crops of the CarolinasMain crops: rice, indigo, and later cottonThe primary export was rice, still seen as exotic in England.Rice grown in Africa, so planters imported W. African slavesBy 1710 black slaves were the majority in Carolina

Conflict with Spanish FloridaCatholic Spain hated the mass of Protestant settlers on their borderAnglo-Spanish WarsSpanish conducted border raids on CarolinaNatives drawn in to helpNatives would later withdraw to PAWould later lead to American acquisition of Florida

The Emergence of North CarolinaNorthern part of Carolina shared a border with VAVA was dominated by aristocratic planters, generally AnglicanDissenters moved to northern Carolina poor farmers with little need for slaves and religious dissentersCreated an environment that was irreligious, resistant to authority/aristocracy and hospitable to pirates1712 NC separates from SC

GeorgiaLate-Coming GeorgiaFounded in 1733, last of the 13 coloniesNamed after King George IIFounded by James OglethorpeCreated as a buffer between English colonies and Spanish Florida and French LouisianaReceived subsidies from British govt. to offset costs of defense.Also a haven for debtors Determined to keep slavery out, but brought in by 1750All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration.