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    Nonferrous Metals and Alloys

    TABLE 5.1: ALUMINUM ALLOY-ALCOA

    Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide, Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide

    on Aluminum Alloys and Mild Steel

    I

    Calculated Volume of Metal bee

    ln.~/in.~/yr.~

    ALLOY

    1 Aqueous Solutions

    1

    Moist Vapors

    HYDROGEN SULFIDE-% HOURS

    2SH14 Aluminum

    .................

    3SH14 Aluminum .................

    Mild Steel

    ........................

    :i%:

    :Ef

    .0117

    ,.0204

    CARBON DIOXIDE-96 HOURS

    2SH14 Aluminum.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    3S-H14 Aluminum.. . . . . . .

    ..; . . . . . . 1

    Mild Steel.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    SULFUR DIOXIDE-32 HOURS

    2SH14 Aluminum .................

    3S-H14 Aluminum .................

    Mild Steel

    ........................

    .0337

    :E .0511

    45.oooos .5080

    NOTES: * Specimens .064 x .36 r 1.2 exposed to distilled water satur-

    ated with gas and also the gas saturated with moisture at room temperature.

    Daily cycle involved bubbling gas into water at 3 liters per hour for 8 hours

    and sealing the system off for 16 hours:

    s Test terminated after one hour because of rapid attack of metal.

    Resistance of Alumtnum Alloy 35 to Solid Chemicals

    Under Conditions of Hlgh Humldlty

    Non-Comoeire

    I

    Border Line

    I

    Gxroeive

    Ammonium dichromate

    Ammonium molybdate

    Ammonium nitrate

    Ammonium sulfate

    Barium carbonate

    Barium chloride

    Barium nitrate

    Borax

    Boric acid

    Calcium oxide

    Chromium trioxide

    Citric acid

    Potassium thiocyanate

    Sodium acetate

    Sodium aluminum fluoride

    Sodium bicarbonate

    Sodium chlorate

    Sodium chloride

    Sodium nitrate

    Sodium sulfate

    Triphenyl phosphate

    Ammonium chloride

    Ammonium fluoride

    Copper sulfate

    ox&

    Ma rgt12 chloride

    Aluminum chloride

    Calcjum chlpride

    Fom&ichlhlrlde

    rmanganate

    Sodium car

    E

    nate

    Sodium

    fluoride

    Aluminum with 1.2% Mn.

    NOTES: I Shallow

    2

    diameter impact extruded containers of aluminum alloy 3s.

    s Chemicals placed in containers as a thin (rf) layer and as scattered aomll mounds.

    s Containerr exposed to an atmosphere having a relative humidity of approximately 100% et

    room temperature for one

    month.

    609

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    610

    Corros ion Resistant Materials Handbook

    TABLE 5.2: ALUMINUM ALLOYS-ALUMINUM ASSOCIATION

    CORROSION RATE UNITS: The most commonly

    accepted unit for expressing the rate of

    corrosion

    of a

    metal is mils

    per year, abbreviated mpy. One mil is

    equal to 0.001.

    Resistant = less than 1 mpy attack

    Mild action = l-5 mpy attack

    Moderate action = 5-20 mpy attack

    Corrosive or corroded by = greater than 20 mpy

    A

    AL

    ABIETIC ACID. Cz0H,,,02. Abietic acid has been

    handled extensively in aluminum alloy equipment.

    See also Ref: (1) p. 124, (2) p. 274, (3) p. 132,

    (7) p. 3.

    ACETALDEHYDE. CH,.CHO. In laboratory

    tests, 1100 alloy was resistant to aqueous rolutions

    of 0.1% to 100% acetaidehyde. Acetaldehyde has

    been produced and handled in aluminum alloy tub-

    ing. heat exchangers, stills, tankage and shipping

    drums. See also Ref: (I) p. 124. (2) p. I. (3) p. 120,

    (4) p. 73. (7) p. 3.

    ACETANILIDE. CH,.CO.NH.C,H,. Acetanilide

    has been produced in aluminum alloyquipment in-

    cluding tanks. pipes, valves, pumps, refiux con-

    densers, vapor lines, heating coils, evaporators and

    reaction vessels. See also Ref: (I) p. 124. (3) p. 147 .

    (7) p. 3.

    ACETIC ACID. CHJ.COOH. The effect of acetic

    acid on aluminum changes markedly with acid con-

    centration and temperature.

    The rate of corrosion is low when

    exposed to acetic acid at all concentrations up to an-

    hydrous glacial acetic acid below 50C (IZZ?F); at

    the boiling temperature of the acetic acid, alumi-

    num is corroded in solutions up to about 90% con-

    centration of the acid. when the attack falls off rap-

    idly to less than 5 mils per year and the rate remains

    at that level until the anhydrous condition ap-

    proaches. The corrosion rate of aluminum in glacial

    acetlc acid. uhich normally contains 0. I to 0.2%

    water. does not increase with temperature. Boiling

    anhydrous acetic acid is very corrosive to aluminum.

    Removal of the last trace of water increases the cor-

    rosion rate one hundred fold, while conversely the

    addition of 0.05% water stops the action. Alumi-

    num has been used extensively in the manufacture

    of acetic acid, in its storage and handling. and in

    process equipment where acetic acid is one of the

    raw materials. In the manufacture of acetic acid

    from wood. the following aluminum alloys have

    been used: for storage tanks. alloys 1100. 3003,

    5083. SOSZ: for stills, alloys 3003. 5052, hU61: for

    condensers. alloys 3003. 5052. 6061; for piping, al-

    loys 1100. 3003. 6061; for ulves and fittings. alloys

    356.0. 514.0; and for manholes. etc.. alloy

    356.0. Alloys 1100.3003,5154, and 5052 have been

    the most commonly used for tanks and tank cars for

    storage of pure glacial acetic acid solutions at nor-

    mnl temperatures. Aluminum alloys have been bed

    extensively in the textile industry for itorape fxilt-

    ties for xstic acid solutions down to 80% ioncen-

    trations. although they are not recommended to

    rtore acid of Ins than 90% concentratism. Some

    tank failures have been reported by the textile in-

    dustry in the storage of 80-84% acetic acid rolu-

    tions. Susceptibility of aluminum alloys to corrosive

    attack in acetic acid solutions is increased greatly by

    inorganic halides or reducing acids and reducing or-

    ganic acids, esters and aldehydes normally encoun-

    tered in the production and use of acetic acid. The

    presence of formic acid should be avoided. Potas-

    sium sulfate and bromide have no influence at or-

    mal temperatures. but accelerate attack at elevated

    temperatures. Aluminum acetylation equtpment

    has been used I the cellulose acetate iwintry.

    Many large crornge tanks. tank can and shipping

    drums have been tired for handling acetic acid.

    See ~1s Ref: (I) p. 124. 12) pp. 3,

    4. (3) pp. 21. 121. 136. 127. (4) pp. 22. 23. 24. 25,

    27. 28. 29, 30. 31. 34. 61. h2. 64. 92, 1 I. (01 p. 20.

    (7, p. 3.

    ACETIC ANHYDRIDE. (CH,,CO):O. In limited

    laboratory tests. acetic snhydride caused moderate

    (I3 mpy) attack of 3003 alloy at IOOC (212F). in

    other tests, acetic anhydride caused mild attack of

    II00 alloy at ambient temperature and at 50C

    (122F). Acetic anhydride had mild action (-5

    mpy) at the boiling point. Aluminum

    and Its alloys have been used for heat exchangers,

    reaction vessels, piping, storagetanks, drums and

    tank cars for handling acetic anhydride. Alloy

    A356.0 valves have been used for handling acetic

    anhydride. See also Ref: (I) p. 124. (2) p. 13. (3) p.

    128, (7) p. 5.

    ACETONE. CH.CO.CHJ. Aluminum and AI-.Mg

    alloys are resistant to acetone in laboratory tests at

    all temperatures. Aluminum has been used with ac-

    etone for piping, (tills. heat exchangers and storage.

    Mild corroGon has been reported in an aluminum

    rtorage tJ.nk for redistilled acetone. Alloy 356.0

    va ~es have been used for handlmg acetone. See also

    Ref: (I) p. 124. (2) p. 17. (3) pp. 121, 242. (7) p. 5.

    ACETONITRILE. CH,.CN. Alloy 3003 was resist-

    ant to acetonitrile at 100C (212F) in laboratory

    beaker tests. See also Ref: (3) p. 142. (5) p. 9.

    ACETOPHENONE, ORTHOHYDROXY.

    CH,COC,H,OH. Limited laboratory tests indicated

    that acetophenone was mildly corrosive to 3003 alloy

    under refluxing or boiling and condensing condi-

    tions. See also Ref: (1) p. 124, (2) p. 20. (3) p. 121 .

    (7) p. 7.

    p-ACETOTOLUIDIDE. CH,CONHC,H&H,.

    Acetotoluidide has been distilled and handled in

    aluminum alloy equipment. See also Ref: (3) p. 144.

    (7) p. 7.

    ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID.

    CH,.CO.OC,H,COOH. In the production of ace-

    tylsalicylic acid, the raw materials, acetic anhydride

    and salicylic acid, and the final product have been

    handled in aluminum alloy storage tanks. piping

    and reaction vessels. See also Ref: (2) p. 26, (3) p.

    130. (5) p. 9. (7) p. 7.

    ACONITIC ACID. C,H,(COOH),. In limited labo-

    ratory tests, aqueous solutions of aconitic acid

    (0.25% to 50%) caused moderate attack (-6 mpy)

    of 3003 alloy at IOOC (212F). See also Ref: (10) p.

    77.

    ACROLEIN. CH?: CHCHO.

    Aluminum

    alloy

    equipment has been used in the manufacture and

    shipment of acrolein. See also Ref: (I) p. 124. (3) p.

    120.

    ACRYLIC ACID. CH?:CHCOOH. Alloys 3003.

    SOSZ. and 5454 were resistant to glacial acrylic acld

    at ambient conditions. Glacial acrylic Acid has been

    shipped in aluminum alloy drums. See also Ref: (I)

    p. 124. (3) p. 128. (5) p. 9. (7) p. 7.

    ACRYLONITRILE. CH?:CHCN. In laboratory

    tests. alloy 3003 uu resistant to acrylonltrilr. acry-

    lonitrile saturated uith water and water raturated

    with acrylonitrile at room temperature and u hen ex-

    posed to boiling acrylonitrile. Aluminum alloy in-

    dustria