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  • 1/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Correcting for peculiar velocities of Type Ia Supernovae in galaxy clusters

    P.-F. Léget, M. V. Pruzhinskaya, A. Ciulli, E. Gangler, Ph. Gris, L.-P. Says + SNFACTORY collaboration

    postdoctoral researcher at the Laboratoire de Physique de Clermont, Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS/IN2P3, Clermont-Ferrand, France

    October 11, 2017

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

  • 2/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Introduction

    Data Nearby Supernova Factory data Host clusters data Redshift measurement

    Results Impact on the Hubble diagram Physical properties of SNe Ia and their hosts in galaxy clusters

    Conclusions

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

  • 3/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Cosmology with SN Ia SN Ia are standardizable candles

    I “luminosity distance-redshift” relation I standardization of SN Ia (Rust 1974, 1975; Pskovskii 1977, 1984;

    Phillips 1993; Phillips et al. 1999; Riess et al. 1996; Perlmutter et al. 1997, 1999; Wang et al. 2003; Guy et al. 2005, 2007; Jha et al. 2007)

    M = MB − αX1 + βC

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

  • 4/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Cosmology with SN Ia Peculiar velocities

    (from A. Ciulli)

    I Is the uncertainty in the redshift negligible? (1 + zobs) = (1 + zc)(1 + zd)

    I For low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.2): I to remove all SNe with z < 0.015 from the Hubble diagram & to

    add a 300–400 km/s peculiar velocity dispersion as z uncertainty (Astier et al. 2006; Wood-Vasey et al. 2007; Amanullah et al. 2010; Union 2.1)

    I velocity maps of the nearby Universe (150 km/s, Hudson et al. 2004; Conley et al. 2011; Betoule et al. 2014; JLA)

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

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    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Coma cluster

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

    σV = 1038 km/s (Colless & Dunn 1996) σm =

    5σV cz ln 10

    Standard methods to take into account peculiar velocities can not be applied for galaxy clusters!

  • 6/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    SN Ia in clusters

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

    Doppler shift

    Doppler shift

    Doppler shift

    Virgo, Fornax: Blakeslee et al. 1999; Radburn-Smith et al. 2004 For SNe: Feindt et al. 2013; Dhawan et al. 2017

    How to estimate better the impact of peculiar velocities on the redshift measurements?

    I to match the host galaxies of SNe Ia with known clusters of galaxies I to use the host cluster redshift instead of the host galaxy redshift

  • 7/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Nearby Supernova Factory data

    I 145 SN Ia (CABALLOv2, 2004 – 2009; Aldering et al. 2002) I The sample contains the objects with good final references and

    properly measured light-curve parameters, including quality cuts suggested by Guy et al. (2010).

    I m∗B, X1, and C are estimated with the SALT2.4 lightcurve fitter (Guy et al. 2007, Betoule et al. 2014).

    0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 Redshift

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    N um

    be ro

    fS N

    e JLA

    Nearby SDSS SNLS HST SNF

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

  • 8/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Galaxy clusters

    Methods for identifying the clusters: I over-density regions on the images I red sequence method I diffuse X-ray emission I Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect

    SIMBAD database I only clusters of galaxies

    (exclude groups of galaxies) I d < 2.5 Mpc I ∆z < 0.015

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

    A1689

  • 9/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Redshift calculation

    Simbad query

    Galaxy cluster list

    R200 query

    SDSS DR13 query

    SNF host

    Literature query

    yes

    no

    zcl, zcl,err

    request

    output

    computation

    for all

    per cluster

    R lit200 t t t t t t t t t t t t

    R�v200 t t t t t t t t t t t t

    Galaxy list in cluster area

    Estimation of R200

    R200 =

    Ngal>10

    NgalNpaper

    else

    Biweight

    Keep literature value

    Remove duplicates

    R200 =

    final result

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

  • Host clusters data

    Final matching: I d < R200 I |zhost − zcl| < 3σVc

    0 1 2 3 4 5

    r/R200

    4

    3

    2

    1

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    v/ σ V

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    0.6

    0.7

    0.8

    0.9

    1.0

    1.1

    1.2

    g − r

    10/16

    } + X-ray→ 11 SNe

  • Red sequence

    11/16

    0

    1

    2

    g −

    r

    SN2009hi PTF09foz SNF20060609-002

    12 14 16 18 20

    0

    1

    2 SNF20080612-003

    12 14 16 18 20 r

    SNF20061020-000

    12 14 16 18 20

    SN2007nq

  • 12/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    X-ray emission (ROSAT)

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

    SNF20080731-000 SN2007nq

    ZwCl 1742+3306 A0119

  • 13/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Hubble diagram wRMS = 0.137m (without correction); wRMS = 0.130m (with correction); p-value = 5.9× 10−4

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

    zc =

    { z clc

    z hostc , σz =

     5 √

    z cl 2err z cl ln(10) if inside a galaxy cluster

    5 √

    z host 2err +0.001 2

    z host ln(10) otherwise

    0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 zc

    −0.4

    −0.3

    −0.2

    −0.1

    0.0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    ∆µ

    SNe Ia inside clusters, before correction SNe Ia inside clusters, after correction SNe Ia outside clusters

    0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008

    zc

    −2.0

    −1.6

    −1.2

    −0.8

    ∆µ

    SN2006X

    wRMS=0.151±0.010 mag wRMS=0.137±0.036 mag wRMS=0.130±0.038 mag

    }?

  • 14/16

    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    The environment of SN Ia

    The influence of the environmental effects on the SN Ia intrinsic luminosity was proved in many works:

    I host galaxy morphology and stellar population age (Hamuy et al. 1995,1996,2000; Riess et al. 1999; Sullivan 2003; Hicken et al. 2009; Pruzhinskaya et al. 2011; Hill et al. 2016; Henne et al. 2017)

    I galocentric distance (Sullivan et al. 2003; Hill et al. 2016) I star-formation rate (Sullivan et al. 2006; Neill et al. 2009; Lampeitl

    et al. 2010; Sullivan et al. 2010; Smith et al. 2012; Johansson 2013) I local star-formation rate (1-3 kpc; Rigault et al. 2013; Roman et al.,

    arXiv:1706.07697) I stellar mass of host galaxy (Kelly et al. 2010; Sullivan et al. 2010;

    Johansson 2013) I host metallicity (Gallagher et al. 2005,2008; Howell et al. 2009)

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

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    Introduction Data Results Conclusions

    Physical properties of SNe Ia in clusters

    Colloque Énergie Noire Orsay, France 11-13 Octobre

    Host morphology: I E/S0 (4), Spirals (7)

    Highest correction:

    I X1 ' 0 I blue galaxies I high local sSFR I smaller Mstellar I r/R200 ' 0.7

    −3 −2 −1 0 1 X1

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1.2

    1.6

    −0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 C

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1.2

    1.6

    −15−14−13−12−11−10 −9 log(LsSFR)

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1.2

    1.6

    9 10 11 12 log(Mstellar)

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1.2

    1.6

    E S0 Sab Sb Sbc Sc Morphology

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1.2

    1.6

    c|∆ z|

    [1 00

    0 km

    s− 1 ]

    −0.4 −0.3 −0.2 −0.1 0.0 RS residuals

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1.2

    1.6

    0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 r/R200

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1.2

    1.6

    14.0 14.5 15.0 log(M200)

    0.0

    0.4

    0.8

    1.2

    1.6

    -13

    -12

    -11

    -10

    lo g(

    L sS

    FR )

  • Conclusions

    16/16

    I We studied how the peculiar velocities of SNe Ia in galaxy clusters affect the redshift measurements by matching 145 SNFACTORY supernovae with known clusters of galaxies.

    I The applied technique allowed to decrease the spread on the Hubble diagram. For the SNe in clusters wRMS is improved from 0.137m to 0.130m with p-value = 5.9× 10−4.

    I The described effect influences the distance measurements in the nearby Universe (z < 0.1) and has to be taken into account in future cosmological surveys.

    I The difference in SN light curve parameters inside and outside the clusters could be fruitful avenue of investigation for future cosmological analysi