Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bell Ringer!!!! (All Bell Ringers Due on Friday) What...

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Transcript of Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bell Ringer!!!! (All Bell Ringers Due on Friday) What...

  • Slide 1
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bell Ringer!!!! (All Bell Ringers Due on Friday) What bones articulate with the manubrium? How would a complete fracture of the dens affect the mobility of the vertebral column? What bones contain the paranasal sinuses?
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Appendicular Skeleton http://www.cteonline.org/portal/default/Resources/Viewer/Resourc eViewer?action=2&resid=12835
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bones of the limbs and their girdles Pectoral girdle attaches the upper limbs to the body trunk Pelvic girdle secures the lower limbs
  • Slide 4
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pectoral Girdle (Shoulder Girdle) The Clavicles and the scapulae Attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton Provide attachment sites for muscles that move the upper limbs
  • Slide 5
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Clavicles (Collarbones) Doubly curved bones.curves ensure that clavicle will fracture away from body to avoid subclavian artery Flattened acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula Cone-shaped sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum Act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally
  • Slide 6
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.24b Acromial (lateral) end (b)Right clavicle, superior view Posterior Sternal (medial) end Anterior
  • Slide 7
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Situated on the dorsal surface of rib cage, between ribs 2 and 7 Flat and triangular, with three borders and three angles Glenoid cavity articulates with humerus and is shallow which allow great flexibility and range- of-motion but poorly reinforcedshoulders easily dislocate
  • Slide 8
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25a Acromion Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Superior border Superior angle Subscapular fossa Medial border Inferior angle Glenoid cavity Lateral border (a) Right scapula, anterior aspect
  • Slide 9
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25b Superior angle Medial border Coracoid process Suprascapular notch Acromion Glenoid cavity at lateral angle Lateral border Infraspinous fossa Spine (b) Right scapula, posterior aspect Supraspinous fossa
  • Slide 10
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.25c Coracoid process Glenoid cavity Acromion Infraspinous fossa Spine (c) Right scapula, lateral aspect Infraglenoid tubercle Supraglenoid tubercle Supraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa Inferior angle Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa PosteriorAnterior
  • Slide 11
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Upper Limb 30 bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb Arm Humerus Forearm Radius and ulna Hand 8 carpal bones in the wrist 5 metacarpal bones in the palm 14 phalanges in the fingers
  • Slide 12
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Largest, longest bone of upper limb Articulates superiorly with glenoid cavity of scapula Articulates inferiorly with radius and ulna Humerus
  • Slide 13
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26a Capitulum Head of humerus Coronoid fossa Medial epicondyle Trochlea (a) Anterior view
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bones of the Forearm Ulna Medial bone in forearm Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus Radius Lateral bone in forearm Head articulates with capitulum of humerus and with radial notch of ulna Interosseous membrane connects the radius and ulna along their entire length
  • Slide 15
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27a-b Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Styloid process of radius Radius Neck of radius Head of radius Head of ulna Styloid process of ulna Interosseous membrane Ulna Head Neck Radial tuberosity Radius Styloid process of radius (a) Anterior view(b) Posterior view
  • Slide 16
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.27c-d (c) Proximal portion of ulna, lateral view Olecranon process Trochlear notch Coronoid process Radial notch View (d) Distal ends of the radius and ulna at the wrist Ulnar notch of radius Head of ulna Styloid process Articulation for scaphoid Articulation for lunate Styloid process View
  • Slide 17
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.26c-d Coronoid fossa Radius Radial tuberosity Head of radius Capitulum Trochlea (c) Anterior view at the elbow region Humerus Medial epicondyle Coronoid process of ulna Ulna Radial notch Olecranon fossa Ulna Olecranon process Medial epicondyle (d) Posterior view of extended elbow Humerus Lateral epicondyle Head Radius Neck
  • Slide 18
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hand: Carpus Eight bones in two rows Proximal row Scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, and pisiform proximally Distal row Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate distally Only scaphoid and lunate articulate with radius to form wrist joint
  • Slide 19
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Some Lads Try Positions That They Cant Handle ScaphoidTrapezium Lunate Trapezoid Triquetrum Capitate Pisiform Hamate
  • Slide 20
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hand: Metacarpus and Phalanges Metacarpus Five metacarpal bones (#1 to #5) form the palm Phalanges Each finger (digit), except the thumb, has three phalangesdistal, middle, and proximal Fingers are numbered 15, beginning with the thumb (pollex) Thumb has no middle phalanx
  • Slide 21
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.28a-b Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Phalanges Carpals Radius Proximal Middle Distal Triquetrum Lunate Capitate Hamate Pisiform Metacarpals Carpals (b) Posterior view of left hand Ulna Base Shaft Head Trapezoid Trapezium Scaphoid Carpals (a) Anterior view of left hand Radius Sesamoid bones
  • Slide 22
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Bell Ringer!!!! (All Bell Ringers Due on Friday) List the 8 carpals in order from proximal to distal starting with radius and moving to ulna (remember, use anatomic position) Which bones play the major role in forming the elbow joint? Which phalanx is a wedding band customarily worn on? When you are finished, please turn them in with your coloring packets!
  • Slide 23
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pelvic (Hip) Girdle Two hip bones (each also called coxal bone or os coxae) Attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton with strong ligaments Transmit weight of upper body to lower limbs Support pelvic organs Each hip bone consists of three fused bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis Together with the sacrum and the coccyx, these bones form the bony pelvis
  • Slide 24
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.29 Coxal bone (os coxae or hip bone) llium Sacroiliac joint Iliac fossa Pubic bone Ischium Sacrum Base of sacrum Pelvic brim Acetabulum Pubic symphysis Iliac crest Coccyx Pubic arch
  • Slide 25
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Hip Bone Three regions 1.Ilium Superior region of the coxal bone Auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint) 2.Ischium Posteroinferior part of hip bone 3.Pubis Anterior portion of hip bone Midline pubic symphysis joint
  • Slide 26
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30a Ilium Ala Ischium Obturator foramen Acetabulum Iliac crest Pubis (a) Lateral view, right hip bone
  • Slide 27
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7.30b Iliac fossa Ilium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine Posterior superior iliac spine Obturator foramen Body of the ilium Ischium (b) Medial view, right hip bone Auricular surface Articular surface of pubis (at pubic symphysis)
  • Slide 28
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Female pelvis Adapted for childbearing True pelvis (inferior to pelvic brim) defines birth canal Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity
  • Slide 29
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves Male pelvis Tilted less forward Adapted for support of males heavier build and stronger muscles Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep
  • Slide 30
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Comparison of Male and Female Pelves CharacteristicFemaleMale Bone thicknessLighter, thinner, and smoother Heavier, thicker, and more prominent markings Pubic arch/angle80 90 (obtuse angle)50 60 (acute angle) AcetabulaSmall; farther apartLarge; closer together SacrumWider, shorter; sacral curvature is accentuated Narrow, longer; sacral promontory more ventral CoccyxMore movable; straighterLess movable; curves ventrally
  • Slide 31
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7.4
  • Slide 34
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Pregnancy related changes to pelvis
  • Slide 35
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Lower Limb Carries the weight of the body Subjec