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Transcript of Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-1Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education...

  • Slide 1
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-1Copyright 2010 Pearson Education CanadaCopyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada Emotion Chapter 11
  • Slide 2
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-2Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada-2Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada-2 Chapter Outline Elements of Emotion 1: The BodyElements of Emotion 1: The Body Elements of Emotion 2: The MindElements of Emotion 2: The Mind Elements of Emotion 3: The CultureElements of Emotion 3: The Culture Putting the Elements Together: Emotion & GenderPutting the Elements Together: Emotion & Gender
  • Slide 3
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-3 Defining Emotion Emotion is a state of arousal involving:Emotion is a state of arousal involving: Facial and bodily changes Brain activation Cognitive appraisals Subjective feelings Tendencies toward action All of the above are shaped by cultural rulesAll of the above are shaped by cultural rules
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-4 Elements of Emotion: The Body Primary emotionsPrimary emotions Emotions considered to be universal and biologically based Generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contempt Secondary emotionsSecondary emotions Emotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and cultures
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-5 Elements of Emotion: The Body Neuroscientists & researchers study three major biological aspect of emotion:Neuroscientists & researchers study three major biological aspect of emotion: Facial expressions Brain regions and circuits Autonomic nervous system Primary emotions associated with distinctive physiological patterns & facial expressionsPrimary emotions associated with distinctive physiological patterns & facial expressions
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-6 The Face of Emotion Evolutionary explanations say that emotions are hard-wired and have survival functionsEvolutionary explanations say that emotions are hard-wired and have survival functions Evidence for the universality of 7 facial expressions of emotion (Ekman, 1997) Anger, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust, sadness, and contemptAnger, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust, sadness, and contempt Emotions recognized cross-culturallyEmotions recognized cross-culturally Genuine versus fake emotions can be distinguishedGenuine versus fake emotions can be distinguished
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-7 Can You Spot the Emotion?
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-8 Functions of Facial Expressions Facial expressions reflect our internal feelings, but can also influence themFacial expressions reflect our internal feelings, but can also influence them Facial feedbackFacial feedback The process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed Emotions help us communicate emotional states & signal others (survival value)Emotions help us communicate emotional states & signal others (survival value) Begins in infancy, babies convey emotions & can interpret parental expressions
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-9 Functions of Facial Expressions Facial expressions of emotion can generate emotions in othersFacial expressions of emotion can generate emotions in others Mood contagionMood contagion A mood spreading from one person to another, as facial expressions of emotion in the first person generate emotions in the other Nonverbal signals can cue emotional responses in others as well E.g., studies of conversational synchronyE.g., studies of conversational synchrony
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-10 Facial Expressions in Context 1.Familiarity affects the ability to read facial expressions 2.Facial expressions can mean different things at different times, depending on the social context and the expressers intentions 3.Cultures differ in the attention they pay to the context of emotional expression 4.People often use facial expressions to lie about their feelings as well as to express them
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-11 The Brain & Emotion Hemispheres of the brain associated with different emotional jobs:Hemispheres of the brain associated with different emotional jobs: Right: Recognizing emotional expressions & processing emotional feeling Left: Processing emotional meaning Some neurons may be involved in imitation & empathy (mirror neurons)Some neurons may be involved in imitation & empathy (mirror neurons)
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-12 The Brain & Emotion AmygdalaAmygdala A brain structure involved in the arousal and regulation of emotion and the initial emotional response to sensory information Assesses threat Damage results in abnormality in processing fear
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-13 The Brain & Emotion Prefrontal cortexPrefrontal cortex The most forward part of the frontal lobes of the brain Left prefrontal cortex: involved in motivation to approach others; damage results in loss of joyLeft prefrontal cortex: involved in motivation to approach others; damage results in loss of joy Right prefrontal cortex: Involved in withdrawal and escape; damage results in excessive mania & euphoriaRight prefrontal cortex: Involved in withdrawal and escape; damage results in excessive mania & euphoria Linked to emotional regulation: modifying and controlling what we feel
  • Slide 14
  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-14 Hormones & Emotion When experiencing intense emotions or under stress, two hormones are released from adrenal glands:When experiencing intense emotions or under stress, two hormones are released from adrenal glands: Epinephrine & norepinephrine Results in increased alertness and arousal At high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally Different patterns of autonomic nervous system activity for basic emotionsDifferent patterns of autonomic nervous system activity for basic emotions
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-15
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-16 Lies & Emotion Polygraph machinePolygraph machine Machine used to measure emotional arousal of a person who is guilty and fearful of being found out Detects increased autonomic nervous system activity while responding to incriminating questions Typical measures: galvanic skin response; pulse, blood pressure; breathing; fidgeting
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-17 Lies & Emotion Problems with Lie Detectors?Problems with Lie Detectors? May end up falsely indicating that truthful people are lyingMay end up falsely indicating that truthful people are lying Not admissible in courtNot admissible in court Better test called Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT)Better test called Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT)
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-18 Elements of Emotion: The Mind Experience of emotion depends on two factors:Experience of emotion depends on two factors: Physiological arousal & cognitive interpretation We feel emotions when we can label the physiological changes but may not always be accurate E.g., Capilano Bridge study (1974)E.g., Capilano Bridge study (1974)
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-19 Attributions & Emotions AttributionsAttributions The explanations that people make of their own and other peoples behaviour Your interpretation of behaviour generates the emotional response (e.g., how you explain outcome of winning silver medal instead of gold?) Relates to upwards & downwards social comparisons, complex emotions, and our ability to feel conflicting emotions at the same time
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-20 Cognitions & Emotional Complexity Cognitions affect emotions, and emotional states affect cognitionsCognitions affect emotions, and emotional states affect cognitions Some emotions require only simple cognitions or may involved conditioned responses (e.g., infants)Some emotions require only simple cognitions or may involved conditioned responses (e.g., infants) Cognitive and emotional developments occur together, become more complex with age and experienceCognitive and emotional developments occur together, become more complex with age and experience Cognitive therapy attempts to change emotions by changing cognitionsCognitive therapy attempts to change emotions by changing cognitions
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-21 Elements of Emotion: The Culture Some researchers say individuals may differ in likelihood of feeling secondary emotionsSome researchers say individuals may differ in likelihood of feeling secondary emotions Primary emotions considered prototype of the concept emotion Young children express prototypical emotions first through words As children age, emotional distinctions specific to their language & culture emerge
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  • Copyright 2010 Pearson Education Canada11-22 Elements of Emotion: The Culture Other researchers argue that no aspect of emotion is untouched by culture or contextOther researchers argue that no a