Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1 Emotion Chapter 11

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Transcript of Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 1 Emotion Chapter 11

  • EmotionChapter 11

    Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

  • Chapter OutlineDefining EmotionElements of Emotion 1: The BodyElements of Emotion 2: The MindElements of Emotion 3: The CulturePutting the Elements together: Emotion and Gender

    Copyright 2007 Pearson Education Canada

  • EmotionA state of arousal involving facial and body changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals, subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action, all shaped by cultural rules

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  • Elements of Emotion 1: The BodyPrimary and secondary emotionsThe face of emotionThe brain and emotionHormones and emotionDetecting emotions: Does the body lie?

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  • Elements of Emotion 1: The BodyPrimary emotionsEmotions considered to be universal and biologically based. They generally include fear, anger, sadness, joy, surprise, disgust, and contemptSecondary emotionEmotions that develop with cognitive maturity and vary across individuals and culturesThree biological areas of emotion are facial expressionsbrain regions and circuits autonomic nervous system

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  • Universal Expressions of EmotionFacial expressions for primary emotions are universalEven members of remote cultures can recognize facial expressions in people who are foreign to themFacial feedbackProcess by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressedInfants are able to read parental expressionsFacial expression can generate same expressions in others, creating mood contagion

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  • The Face of AngerAnger is universally recognized by geometric patterns on the faceIn each pair, the left form seems angrier than the right form

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  • Facial Expressions in Social ContextAcross and within cultures, agreement often varies on which emotion a particular facial expression is revealingPeople dont usually express their emotion in facial expressions unless others are aroundFacial expressions convey different meanings depending on their circumstancesPeople often use facial expressions to lie about their feelings as well as to express them

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  • The Brain and EmotionThe amygdalaResponsible for assessing threatDamage to the amygdala results in abnormality to process fear

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  • The Brain and EmotionLeft prefrontal cortex Involved in motivation to approach othersDamage to this area results in loss of joyRight prefrontal cortex Involved in withdrawal and escapeDamage to the area results in excessive mania and euphoria

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  • Hormones and EmotionWhen experiencing an intense emotion, two hormones are releasedEpinephrineNorepinephrineResults in increased alertness and arousalAt high levels, it can create the sensation of being out of control emotionally

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  • The Autonomic Nervous System

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  • Detecting Emotions: Does the Body Lie?Polygraph testing relies on autonomic nervous system arousalTypical measures:Galvanic skin responsePulse, blood pressureBreathingFidgeting

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  • Polygraph TestsEmpirical support is weak and conflictingTest is inadmissible in most courtsIt is illegal to use for most job screeningMany government agencies continue to use for screening

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  • Elements of Emotion 2: The MindHow thoughts create emotionsThe two-factor theory of emotionAttributions and emotionsCognitions & Emotional Complexity

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  • Two-factor Theory of EmotionPhysiological arousalSweaty palmsIncreased heart rateRapid breathingCognitive LabelAttribute source of arousal to a causeTo have an emotion, both factors are required

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  • Attributions and EmotionsPerceptions and attributions are involved in emotionsHow one reacts to an event depends on how he or she explains itFor example, how one reacts to being ignored or winning the silver instead of the gold medalPhilosophy of life is also influential

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  • Cognitions and Emotional ComplexityCognitions affect emotionsEmotions affect cognitionsCognitive and emotional developments occur together, become more complex with ageCognitive therapy attempts to change emotions by changing cognitions

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  • Elements of Emotion 3: The CultureCulture and emotional variationThe rules of emotional regulationDisplay rulesBody languageEmotion work

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  • Culture and Emotional VariationCulture determines what people feel angry, sad, lonely, happy, ashamed or disgusted aboutSome cultures have words for specific emotions unknown to other culturesEx. SchadenfreudeSome cultures dont have words for emotions that seem universal to othersTahitian and sadnessDifferences in secondary emotions appear to be reflected in differences in languages

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  • Culture & Emotional Expression Display RulesWhen, where, and how emotions are to be expressed or when they should be squelchedBody LanguageThe nonverbal signals of body movement, posture and gaze that people constantly expressEmotion WorkActing out an emotion we do not feel or trying to create the right emotion for the occasion

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  • Putting it all together: Emotion and GenderEmotional ReactivitySensitivity to other peoples emotionsCognitionsExpressivenessFactors which affect expressivenessEmotion work

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  • Putting the Elements Together: Emotion and GenderEmotional ReactivityWomen recall emotional events more intensely and vividly than do menMen experience emotional events more intensely than do womenConflict is physiologically more upsetting for men than women

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  • Gender differences in physiology and intensityMales autonomic nervous system is more reactive than femalesMen are more likely to rehearse angry thoughts, which maintains angerWomen are more likely to ruminate, which maintains depression

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  • Sensitivity to Other Peoples EmotionsFactors that influence ones ability to read emotional signals:The sex of the sender and receiverHow well the sender and receiver know each otherHow expressive the sender isWho has the powerStereotypes and expectations

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  • CognitionsMen and women appear to differ in the types of everyday events that provoke their angerWomen become angry over issues related to their partners disregardMen become angry over damage to property or problems with strangers

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  • ExpressivenessIn North America, women:Smile more than menGaze at listeners moreHave more emotionally expressive facesUse more expressive body movementsTouch others moreAcknowledge weakness and emotions moreCompared to women, men only express anger to strangers more

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  • Factors Influencing Emotional ExpressivenessGender rolesCultural normsThe specific situation

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  • Emotion Work and GenderWomen work hard at appearing warm, happy and making sure others are happyMen work hard at persuading others they are stern, aggressive and unemotionalWhy?Gender roles and status

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    EmotionPrepared by Krista D. Forrest, Ph.D. These slides 2006 Prentice Hall Psychology Publishing.

    To print the slides in black and white using the original template (Comet), check the pure black and white box in the print dialog.1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotionFigure 9.8 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:Aronoff, J., Woike, B. A., & Hyman, L. M. (1992). Which are the stimuli in facial displays of anger and happiness? Configurational bases of emotion recognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62, 1050-1066.1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotionFigure 9.5 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:

    1999 Prentice HallEmotionFigure 9.6 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:

    1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotionFigure 9.11 from:Kassin, S. (1998). Psychology, second edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Source:Schachter, S. (1964). The interaction of cognitive and physiological determinants of emotional state. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 49-80. New York: Academic Press.1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice HallEmotion1999 Prentice Hall