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    ENGINEERING COOKBOOK

    A Handbook for theMechanical Designer

    http://../ElectronicPublications.pdf
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    A Handbookfor the

    Mechanical Designer

    Second EditionCopyright 1999

    This handy engineeringinformation guide is a token of

    Loren Cook Companys appreciationto the many ne mechanical designers

    in our industry.

    Springeld, MO

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    Fan BasicsFan Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Fan Selection Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Fan Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Fan Performance Tables and Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Fan Testing - Laboratory, Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Air Density Factors for Altitude and Temperature . . . . . . . . . 3Use of Air Density Factors - An Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Classications for Spark Resistant Construction . . . . . . . .4-5

    Impeller Designs - Centrifugal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-6Impeller Designs - Axial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components. . . . . . . . . . . . 8Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-10Rotation & Discharge Designations for Centrifugal Fans 11-12Motor Positions for Belt or Chain Drive Centrifugal Fans . . 13Fan Installation Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Fan Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    Motor and Drive BasicsDenitions and Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Types of Alternating Current Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17-18Motor Insulation Classes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Motor Service Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    Locked Rotor KVA/HP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Motor Efciency and EPAct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Full Load Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21-22General Effect of Voltage and Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Allowable Ampacities of Not More Than Three

    Insulated Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-25Belt Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Estimated Belt Drive Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Bearing Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    System Design GuidelinesGeneral Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Process Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29Kitchen Ventilation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

    Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Rules of Thumb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31-32Noise Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    Table of Contents

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    System Design Guidelines (cont.)Sound Power and Sound Power Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Level . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Room Sones dBA Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Noise Criteria Curves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34Design Criteria for Room Loudness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35-36Vibration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Vibration Severity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38-39

    General Ventilation Design

    Air Quality Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Air Change Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40Suggested Air Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41Ventilation Rates for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality . . . . . . . 42Heat Gain From Occupants of Conditioned Spaces . . . . . . 43Heat Gain From Typical Electric Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Rate of Heat Gain Commercial Cooking Appliances in

    Air-Conditioned Areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Rate of Heat Gain From Miscellaneous Appliances . . . . . . 46Filter Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Relative Size Chart of Common Air Contaminants . . . . . . . 47Optimum Relative Humidity Ranges for Health . . . . . . . . . . 48

    Duct Design

    Backdraft or Relief Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Screen Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50Duct Resistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Rectangular Equivalent of Round Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components. . . . . . . . . 53Velocity and Velocity Pressure Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . 54U.S. Sheet Metal Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Recommended Metal Gauges for Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Wind Driven Rain Louvers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

    Heating & RefrigerationMoisture and Air Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Properties of Saturated Steam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Cooling Load Check Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59-60

    Heat Loss Estimates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61-62Fuel Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62Fuel Gas Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

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    Heating & Refrigeration (cont.)Estimated Seasonal Efciencies of Heating Systems . . . . 63Annual Fuel Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63-64Pump Construction Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Pump Impeller Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64Pump Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Pump Mounting Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65Afnity Laws for Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66Pumping System Troubleshooting Guide . . . . . . . . . . . 67-68

    Pump Terms, Abbreviations, and Conversion Factors . . . . 69Common Pump Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70Water Flow and Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70-71Friction Loss for Water Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71-72Equivalent Length of Pipe for Valves and Fittings . . . . . . . 73Standard Pipe Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Copper Tube Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Typical Heat Transfer Coefcients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Fouling Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76Cooling Tower Ratings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77Evaporate Condenser Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78Compressor Capacity vs. Refrigerant Temperature at

    100F Condensing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

    Refrigerant Line Capacities for 134a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-502 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80Refrigerant Line Capacities for R-717 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

    Formulas & Conversion FactorsMiscellaneous Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81-84Area and Circumference of Circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84-87Circle Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87Common Fractions of an Inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87-88Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88-94Psychometric Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

    Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96-103

    Table of Contents

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    Fan TypesAxial Fan - An axial fan discharges air parallel to the axis of the

    impeller rotation. As a general rule, axial fans are preferred forhigh volume, low pressure, and non-ducted systems.Axial Fan Types Propeller, Tube Axial and Vane Axial.

    Centrifugal Fan - Centrifugal fans discharge air perpendicular tothe axis of the impeller rotation. As a general rule, centrifugalfans are preferred for higher pressure ducted systems.Centrifugal Fan Types Backward Inclined, Airfoil, Forward Curved, and Radial Tip.

    Fan Selection CriteriaBefore selecting a fan, the following information is needed.

    Air volume required - CFM System resistance - SP Air density (Altitude and Temperature)

    Type of service Environment type Materials/vapors to be exhausted Operation temperature

    Space limitations Fan type Drive type (Direct or Belt) Noise criteria Number of fans Discharge Rotation Motor position Expected fan life in years

    Fan Basics

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    Fan LawsThe simplied form of the most co