CONTRACT LAW

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Transcript of CONTRACT LAW

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2. Formation of a Contract. Third-Party Rights and Privity of Contract
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2. Formation of a Contract. Third-Party Rights and Privity of Contract
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2. Formation of a Contract. Third-Party Rights and Privity of Contract
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3.2.


Theme 1. Introduction to English Contract Law 1. Contracts as part of the law of obligations. 1.1. Concurrence of claims in contract and tort. 1.2. Contracts and unjust enrichment. 2. Sources of English contract law: - case law; - statutes; - international conventions; - EU Law. 3. Fundamental principles of English contract law. 3.1. freedom of contract; 3.2. the binding force of contract; 3.3. a principle of good faith or of contractual fairness. 4. The Human Rights Act 1998 and contracts. 5. Classification of contracts: Contracts of Record, Formal
Contract (Contract by Deed), Informal Contracts, Express
Contracts, Implied Contracts, Executed Contracts and
Executory Contracts etc.
; 1.2. . 2. : - ; - ;
- ; - ; - .
3.
: 3.1. ; 3.2. ; 3.3. .
4. 1998 . .
5. :
,
,
,
..
Privity of Contract
Theme 2. Formation of a Contract 1. Establishing an Agreement. 2. Offer. The rules of offer. Distinguishing offer from invitation
to treat. Termination of offer. Revocation of offer. Battle of
forms.
11
«
acceptance. Acceptance by silence. Distinction from counter
offer. Acceptance in unilateral contracts. Mailbox rule. 4. Consideration. The rules of consideration. Executory and
executed consideration. Adequate consideration. Nominal
consideration. 5. Intention to create legal relations. 6. Other factors affecting formation. Capacity. 7. Form of a contract. Contracts for which writing is
required. Contracts by deed.
Theme 3. Third-Party Rights and Privity of Contract 1. The doctrine of privity of contract. The basic rule and its
effect. 2. The exceptions to the basic rule. Statutory exceptions. Restrictive covenants. 3. Protecting third parties in exclusion clauses. 4. Collateral contracts. 5. The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999.
2. 1.
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3. . 4. . 5. ( ) 1999 .
13

Theme 4. Terms of Contract. Exclusion Clauses 1. Pre-contractual statements and representations. 2. Express terms of the contract. Conditions, warranties, and
innominate terms. Distinguishing between a condition and a
warranty. Distinguishing innominate terms and conditions. 3. Implied terms of the contract: implied in law and implied
in fact. Terms implied by statute. Terms implied from usage or
custom. 4. Boilerplate clauses. 5. Exemption clauses and limitation clauses. The `contra
proferentum` rule. Interpretation of exemption clauses. 5.1. Exempting liability for fundamental breach of contract. 5.2. Exempting liability for negligence. 5.3. Common law rules controlling exemption clauses. 5.4. Statutory and EU limitations on exemption clauses.
Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977. 6. The interpretation of contracts. Rules of interpretation.
The contextual approach. Strict interpretation. Integration clause.
4. . 1.
. 2. . «
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5.
. «contra proferentum».
. 5.1.
.
.
. 5.4.
.
1977 . 6. . .
.
.
.
Duress, and Illegality 1. Misrepresentation. Types of Misrepresentation: innocent,
negligent, fraudulent. Requirements for Relief for


Misrepresentation. Remedies for misrepresentation. 2. Mistake. Mistake about the terms of the contract.
Mistakes of fact or law. Mistakes about the subject matter of the
contract or the surrounding circumstances. Mistake at Common
law. Mistake in Equity. 3. Duress. Duress of the person. Duress of goods. Economic
duress. 4. Undue influence. 5. Illegality. Contracts illegal by statute. Contracts illegal at
Common law. The effect of illegality. 6. Frustration and force majeure. Frustrating events:
impossibility, illegality, and frustration of purpose. The effects of
frustration. 5. ,
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Theme 6. Performance and Discharge of Contracts. Remedies for Breach of Contract 1. Performance of a contract. 2. Discharge of the contract. Discharge by performance.
Discharge by agreement. Discharge by frustration. Discharge by
breach of contract. Discharge by operation of law. 3. Termination of contract. The existence of a right to
terminate a contract. Breach of a condition. Breach of a
warranty. Breach of an intermediate term. Anticipatory breach.
Repudiatory breach. 4. Damages for breach of contract: basis of assessment of
damages. Causation, remoteness and mitigation. Agreed
damages clauses. 5. Specific performance. 6. Injunction. 7. Damages in lieu of specific performance. 8. Rescission. 9. Limitation of Actions.
6.
. 1.
. 2. .
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5. . 6. . 7. . 8. . 9. .
3.3.
Intramural, intra-extramural and extramural forms of study – 2 hours
1. Contracts as Part of the Law of Obligations.
16
3. Fundamental Principles of English Contract Law.
4. The Human Rights Act 1998 and Contract Law.
5. Classification of Contracts in English Law.
1.
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. 1998 . . 5.
.
1. ,
, .
2.
.
.
4. .
3.4.
Intramural, intra-extramural and extramural forms of study – 2 hours
1. Contracts as Part of the Law of Obligations.
1.1. Concurrence of Claims in Contract and Tort;
1.2. Contracts and Unjust Enrichment.
2. Sources of English Contract Law: Case Law, Statutes, EU Law,
and International Conventions.
4. The Human Rights Act 1998 and Contracts.
5. Classification of Contracts in English Law.
I.
1.
1. . 1.1.
;
17
, ,
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3.
4. 1998 . . 5.
.
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OSCOLA.
. ?
- Photo Production Ltd. v. Securicor Transport Ltd. [1980] A.C. 827;
- Homburg Houtimport B.V. v. Agrosin Private Ltd. (The Starsin) [2003]
UKHL 12, [2003] 3 W.L.R. 711;
- Hughes v. Metropolitan Railway Co (1876-77) L.R. 2 App. Cas. 439;
- Arcos Ltd. v. EA Ronaasen & Son [1993] A.C. 470;
- Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co [1983] 1 QB 256;
- Henderson v. Merrett Syndicates [1995] 2 A.C. 145, [1994] 3 All ER 506.
4.
, ratio decidendi obiter dictum.
stare decisis?
.
6.
.
7. ,
.
8.1. :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
Unit II. Formation of a Contract. Third-Party Rights
and Privity of Contract
Intramural, intra-extramural and extramural forms of study – 2 hours
1. Establishing an Agreement.
2. The Rules of Offer. Distinguishing Offer from Invitation to Treat.
Termination of Offer. Revocation of Offer. Battle of Forms.
3. The Rules of Acceptance. Distinction form Counter-Offer. Acceptance
by Silence. Mailbox Rule. Acceptance in Unilateral Contracts.
4, The Rules of Consideration. Executory and Executed Consideration.
Adequate Consideration. Nominal Consideration.
6. Form of Contract. Contract for Which Writing is Required.
Contracts by Deed.
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Theme 3. Third-Party Rights and Privity of Contract
Intramural and intra-extramural forms of study – 2 hours
1. The Doctrine of Privity of Contract. The Basic Rule and Its Effect.
2. The Exceptions to the Basic Rule. Statutory Exceptions. Restrictive
Covenants.
4. Collateral Contracts.
5. The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. 3.
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22
- Les Affreteurs Reunis S.A. v. Walford;
- Shanklin Pier v. Deter Products Ltd.; - Beswick v. Beswick; - Tweedle v. Atkinton.
Turner
C. Contract Law: Key Facts, Key Cases. Routledge, 2014.
2. ( ) 1999 .
3. :
3.1. « » :
) Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Co Ltd. v. Selfridge & Co Ltd.;
) Tweedle v. Atkinson;
) Beswick v. Beswick;
) Shanklin Pier v. Deter Products Ltd. 3.2. (
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Theme 4. Terms of Contract. Exclusion Clauses
23
form of study – 2 hours
1. Pre-contractual Statements and Representations.
2. Express Terms of the Contract. Conditions, warranties, and innominate
Terms.
3. Implied terms of the contract: implied in law and implied in fact. Terms
implied by statute. Terms implied from usage or custom.
4. Boilerplate clauses.
clauses. The `contra proferentum` rule.
5.1. Common law rules controlling exemption clauses.
5.2. Statutory and EU limitations on exemption clauses. Unfair
Contract Terms Act 1977.
6. The interpretation of contracts. Rules of interpretation. The contextual
approach. Strict interpretation. Integration clause.
III.
1. .
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4. .
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5.1. ;
5.2.
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Unit IV. Factors that Vitiate a Contract
Theme 5. Vitiating Factors: Misrepresentation, Mistake, Duress, and
Illegality
1. Types of Misrepresentation. Requirements
for Relief for
2.2. Mistakes of fact or law.
2.3. Mistakes about the subject matter of the contract or the
surrounding circumstances.
2.5. Mistake in Equity.
3. Duress. Duress of the person. Duress of goods. Economic duress.
4. Undue influence.
Common law. The effect of illegality.
6. Frustration and force majeure. Frustrating events: impossibility,
illegality, and frustration of purpose. The effects of frustration.
IV.
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1.
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Myrick (1809) 2 Camp. 317 and 6 Esp. 129; - D & C Builders v.
Rees [1966] 2 QB 617.
27
3. Re Mahmoud and Ispahani [1921]
2 KB 716 Archbolds (Freightage) Ltd. v. Spanglett Ltd. [1961] 2 QB 374.
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. Garden Ltd.
Unit V. Performance, Discharge and Remedies for Breach of Contract
Theme 6. Performance and Discharge of Contracts. Remedies for
Breach of Contract
1. Performance of a contract.
2. Discharge of the contract.
3. Termination of contract. The existence of a right to terminate a contract.
Breach of a condition. Breach of a warranty. Breach of an intermediate term.
Anticipatory breach. Repudiatory breach.
4. Damages for breach of contract: basis of assessment of damages.
Causation, remoteness and mitigation. Agreed damages clauses.
5. Specific performance.
8. Rescission.

6. .

1. .
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29
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Model topics for colloquiums:
2. Offer and invitation to treat.
3. Battle of forms.
4. Methods of acceptance.
5. Acceptance by conduct.
9. Acceptance in ignorance of an offer.
10. Consideration.
12. The doctrine of promissory estoppel.
13. Intention to create legal relations.
14. The doctrine of Privity of contract.
15. The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999: the main effect, exceptions.
16. Collateral contracts.
18. Assignment.
19. Capacity.
22. Express terms of contract: conditions, warranties and innominate terms.
23. Implied terms of contract.
24. Clauses excluding or limiting liability.
25. Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977.
26. Indemnities.
27. Misrepresentation.
32. Mistake in equity.
36. Undue influence.
38. Remedies for undue influence.
39. Illegality: definition and categories of illegality.
40. Agreements contrary to public policy.
41. Contracts restricting competition.
44. Discharge by performance.
46. Termination under the Principles of European Contract Law.
33
49. Damages.
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1. Sources of English contract law.
2. Concurrence of claims in contract and tort.
3. Fundamental principles of English contract law.
4. Freedom of contract and its limits in English contract law.
36
6. The formation and scope of a contract.
7. Offer and acceptance.
11. The doctrine of privity of contract.
12. Assignment of contractual rights.
13. The content of a contract.
14. Contractual terms: definitions, and classification.
15. Express terms: definition, types, main characteristics.
16. Conditions, warranties and innominate terms.
17. Implied terms.
21. Frustration and force majeure.
22. Illegal contracts. Definitions, and categories of illegality.
23. Contracts and public policy.
24. Duress in English contract law.
25. Undue influence.
27. Breach of contract: definition, types, and the consequences.
28. Remedies for breach of contract.
29. Remedies for pre-contractual statements.
30. Remedies for misrepresentations.
32. Remedies for duress.
34. Frustration: the nature of the doctrine, and frustration events.
35. Damages for breach of contract.
36. Liquidated damages and penalty clauses.
37. Specific performance.
40. Restitution.
2. .
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38
2. Sources of English contract law. Statutes.
3. Sources of English contract law. EU law and international conventions.
4. Fundamental principles of English contract law. Freedom of contract and its
limits.
5. Fundamental principles of English contract law. Principle of good faith.
6. Concurrence of claims in contract and tort.
7. Classification of contracts in English law.
8. Offer and invitation to treat.
9. Acceptance. Distinction from counter offer.
10. Methods of acceptance.
12. Acceptance in unilateral contracts.
13. Acceptance in Internet transactions.
14. Battle of forms.
16. Consideration.
18. Capacity.
19. Form of contract. Contracts by deed.
20. The doctrine of privity of contract. The basic rule and its effect.
21. The doctrine of privity of contract. The exceptions to the basic rule.
22. Restrictive covenants.
24. Assignment of contractual rights.
25. Promissory estoppel.
26. The Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999: the main effect, exceptions.
27. Collateral contracts.
31. The content of a contract.
32. Representations and warranties.
33. Express terms of the contract.
34. Conditions, warranties and innominate terms.
35. Implied terms of the contract.
36. Implied terms of contract: implied in law and implied in fact.
37. Implied terms of contract: terms implied by statute. Terms implied from usage
or custom.
39
41. Exempting liability for fundamental breach of contract. Exempting liability for
negligence.
42. Common law rules controlling exemption clauses.
43. Statutory and EU limitations on exemption clauses. Unfair contract terms.
44. The interpretation of contracts.
45. Contracts and public policy.
46. Vitiating factors: definitions, and types.
47. Misrepresentation. Types of misrepresentation.
48. Remedies for misrepresentation.
51. Duress. Economic duress.
52. Remedies for duress.
55. Illegality: definition and categories of illegality.
56. Frustration and force majeure.
57. Performance of a contract.
58. Discharge of a contract.
59. Termination of contract.
61. Specific performance.
1. . .
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