Content-Based Instruction:Teaching Methods and Strategies
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- 1.Content-Based Instruction (Teaching Methods and Strategies)
2. Content- Based Instruction: Methods and Strategies grammar-translation method - In grammar-translation classes, students learn grammatical rules and then apply those rules by translating sentences between the source language and their native language. Advanced students may be required to translate whole texts word-for-word. - this method focuses on reading and writing and has developed techniques which facilitate more or less the learning of reading and writing only. As a result, speaking and listening are overlooked. 3. Direct Method (Natural Method) - established in Germany and France around 1900. - used in teaching foreign languages, refrains from using the learners native language and uses only the target language. Teaching focuses on the development of oral skills. 4. Characteristic Features of Direct Method teaching concepts and vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials. teaching grammar by using inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language). centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation). focus on question-answer patterns. 5. Audio Lingual Method (Army Method or New Key Method) - Like the direct method, the audio-lingual method advised that students be taught a language directly, without using the students' native language to explain new words or grammar in the target language. - However, unlike the direct method, the audio-lingual method didnt focus on teaching vocabulary. Rather, the teacher drilled students in the use of grammar. - In audio-lingualism, there is no explicit grammar instruction everything is simply memorized in form. 6. Types of Learning and Teaching activities (Stroller) Language skill improvement Vocabulary Building Discourse Organization Communicative interaction Study skills Synthesis of Content materials 7. Learning Strategies Metacognitive Strategies: planning for learning, monitoring ones comprehension and production, evaluating how well learning objectives have been achieved. Cognitive Strategies: interaction with material by physical (grouping, taking notes, making summaries) and mental (making mental images, relating new information to previous concepts and skills) manipulation . Social-Affective Strategies: interaction with others to assist learning. 8. CBI: Cognitive Approach According to current development in cognitive psychology, information is stored in memory in two forms: declarative knowledge what we know about a given topic, procedural knowledge knowing how to do. In the content-based instruction, the content component represents declarative knowledge, while the language component aims at teaching the procedural knowledge students need to use language as a tool for learning. In addition to this a third component comes at play to train learners autonomy through teaching learning strategies.