Contemporary Landscape Architecture in Norway
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Transcript of Contemporary Landscape Architecture in Norway
Karsten Jrgensen Vilde stabel
Contemporary LandsCape arChiteCture in norway
1st edition 2010isBn 978-82-05-40858-6translated By lynda ChristiansenCover photo: Caroline reistadCover design and layout: avrio design, anne vinestypeset: the sans light 9/13 ptpaper: 130 g arCtiC volume Whiteprint: dimograf, poland 2010
for all enquiries aBout this Book ContaCt: gyldendal akademiskpo Box 6730 st. olavs plassn-0130 oslonorWay
all rights reserved. no part of this Work Covered By the Copyright may Be reproduCed in any form of By any means graphiC, eleCtroniC or meChaniCal, inCluding photo-Copying, taping or information storage and retrieval systems Without the Written permission of the puBlisher.
taBLe of Contentspreface 7introduction 8trends and trend-setters in norwegian landscape architecture from 1920 to 1970 12norwegian landscape architecture as viewed by four related disciplines 20an international perspective of norwegian landscape architecture from 1989 to 2009 36
CuLturaL LandsCape in transition 46urBan environment 102soCiaL LandsCapes 176urBan parks 222epilogue 266notes 271
norwegian association of Landscape architects (nLa) celebrated its 80th anniversary in 2009. as a tribute to this milestone, the board wished to showcase the role of norwegian landscape archi-tecture by producing this book, the associations biggest initiative to date. this publication repre-sents the huge voluntary effort and strong pro-fessional involvement of many of the members.
a budget was set aside for the project and an advertisement was published looking for inter-ested writers, editors, and project leaders for the book. vilde stabel, a recently qualified landscape architect who had also studied journalism, and karsten Jrgensen, an experienced professor of landscape architecture with a specialisation in modern history, were among the applicants. nLafound both of these applicants interesting, and also knew they were father and daughter! Both applicants were surprised to find the other had made a submission, and it was agreed, at the request of the nLa leadership, that they co-op-erate on the project. during the time of writing little Lukas announced his arrival, and conse-quently karsten has taken on a greater share of the work.
the scope of the project quickly grew from the ini-tial intent of presenting a representative selection of norwegian landscape architecture projects, to also including a review of the role of the profes-sion in norway today. all members of the asso-ciation were invited to submit suggestions for projects to be included in the book, and of the
200 hundred projects received, 50 were chosen for inclusion, based primarily on quality. however, the integrity of the book as a whole and the desire to present as broad a view as possible of norwe-gian landscape architecture were also important criteria. Both experienced and novice colleagues have helped in the selection process, although the editor was responsible for the final selection. the categories used and the projects chosen can and should be grounds for debate. the quality of the projects submitted was so high that another jury may have made quite different choices and the end result would have been just as good.
in the time period that this book was written, the board of nLa has consisted of anne Bertine fager-heim, yngvar hegrenes, Brd magnus fauske, eva preede, martine wilberg, ragni Lucie helveg, kjersti erlandsen tofte, tor nilsen, askild nilsen, Christine riiser wist, marte Bysting willumsen and Bjrn amund myklebust enebo. president of nLa is marit hovi.
two seminars were arranged in 2009 to discuss the content of the book in its entirety and the projects to be presented. those attending were Lars Berge, mari Bergset, ola Bettum, magnus greni, alf haukeland, Birgitte hellstrm, tone Lindheim, hilde mangerud, kari mangset, olav moen, ragnhild momrak, Jenny osuldsen, trygve sundt, ingrid stre, marianne thomassen, anita veiseth and Bjarne aasen. ingrid haukeland, rei-dun stubbe and arne slen acted as advisors on the selection of projects.
on behalf of nLa, i would like to thank all partici-pants in the seminars and the advisors, as well as those who suggested projects, have contributed illustrations, and provided detailed information. Last but not least i wish to thank all those who have generously given economic support to the project and made this publication possible.
the majority of landscape architects in norway are educated at the institute of Landscape archi-tecture and spatial planning at the norwegian university of Life sciences at s. the oslo school of architecture and design (aho) and the Ber-gen school of architecture (Bas) also offer pro-grammes in landscape architecture. the sogn and fjordane university College offers courses in landscape planning, and students of architecture at aho, Bas and at the norwegian university of science and technolwogy (ntnu) in trondheim have lectures and undertake landscape architec-ture projects. it is to be hoped that students at all these schools will benefit from the book. we also hope that the book inspires and interests anyone concerned with landscape architecture, urban planning, and the quality of our outdoor environ-ment in general.
nLa is both proud and grateful that this impor-tant work has now been completed. a special thanks goes to karsten Jrgensen and vilde stabel for their remarkable effort in writing this book.
anne Bertine fagerheimpresident nLa, 20072010
from vetrlidsallmenningen in Bergen, arne slen mnLa
this book is about spaces - the spaces in-between we move through when we are out-doors in a particular place, or on the way from one place to another, either in towns or in the countryside. the shaping of outdoor spaces and the cultural landscape has received remarkably little attention as a theme in norwegian professional literature, despite the fact that it affects us all. indeed, few ever consider the shapes and materials comprising outdoor spaces and the concepts behind these designs.
the aim of this book is to increase understanding of the qualities of outdoor space by presenting a selection of market places, squares, roads and residential areas built during the past twenty years in norway. we wish to contribute to a greater awareness of the landscapes that affect us daily. all the projects in this book have been planned and de-signed by norwegian landscape architects. in the past two decades an utterly different urban culture has materialised in our cities. in parallel with this evolution, the challenges of climate change have affected all facets of planning, not least that of our outdoor en-vironment, which, to a far greater extent than previously, must anticipate the limitations set by nature.
Landscape, according to the european Landscape Convention,1 is defined as an area, as perceived by people, the character of which is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors. in other words, landscape can include everything from virgin forests to everyday surroundings in towns and cities - from an area dominated by industry and transport infrastructure to a ceremonial square or a park for recreation. Land-scape architecture encompasses the planning, design and maintenance of all of these types of landscape. the scope of a landscape architecture project can vary from the design of the details of a playground to the formation of huge motorway routes and the adminis-tration of our cultural landscape.
Landscape architecture was born out of the art of gardening. the moorish gardens of the alhambra and the french baroque gardens of versailles are well known examples of the art from earlier times. But while historically the art of gardening had an exclusive character re-
Bygdy kongsgrd was established as norways first large scale public park in 1837
served for the elite, landscape architecture embraces our everyday landscape: those spaces to be enjoyed in-between, where we travel, contemplate or play.
focus on the environment as a factor in public health arose during the romantic movement in the 18th century as a reaction to the effects of industrialisation. modern city life, with polluted air and crowded living conditions, had created an increase in epidemics and conta-gious diseases. access to a green environment was seen as a tool to promote the health of the general population, and as a direct result public parks and pathways were established in most cities during the 18th century. these parks were open to all, to provide the population access to greenery and fresh air, as well as promote respect and understanding between different social classes. the establishment of such public parks towards the end of 1800s led to the new discipline of landscape architecture.
the discipline of landscape architecture is supported by three basic pillars: the first of these is its heritage in the art of gardening. as an expression of the cultural landscape, it is in a unique position. as an all-encompassing art form it deals with the intimacy of our personal reactions as well as our outdoor experience as a whole. the second pillar of the discipline is social engagement. having arisen from the movement to make parks and recreation ar-eas accessible to everyone, it focuses on the health and welfare of the public at large. the third pillar is the interest and concern with nature itself. knowledge of the specific natural environment, not least the diversity of plants as one of its most important materials, can be a deciding factor in the success or failure of a project. this dependence on the condition of the natur