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    PHN LOI CONTAINER

    I, CONTAINER NG BIN:

    1. Cn cvo trng ti:Loi container Trng ti Dung tchLoi nh 10 tn > 10 m

    2. Cn cvo vt liu lm container:+ Thp:Loi ny dung bkhung v cc tm pa-nen bng thp (thp thnghoc thp cao cp), ton bcu trc u c hn, cc tm pe-nen c unln song nn rn chc, c sc chu lc cao.

    Loi ny c u im:

    - Kn nc, t r rv t bin dng.

    - Bn chc, t h hng khi va p, cxt.

    - Ddng sa cha v thp l vt liu mua bn phthong trn thtrng.

    - Gi thnh chto tng i thp v gi thp rhn nhm hay nha FRP.

    Nhc im:

    - Tn nhiu cng sc bo dng v thp dbn mn.

    - Trng lng vContainer tng i nng hn vi nhm hay vt liu khc.+ Nhm:C 2 loi container nhm:

    - Loi c bkhung ton bbng thp v chc pa-nen bng nhm.

    - Loi c khung mt trc v khung mt sau bng thp. Cc cu kin cn liu bng nhm.

    Khung nhm c hn lin kt vi nhau, cn Pa-nen c tn ri-v (rivet) vgia cbi cc ct ng btr bn trong hoc bn ngoi.

    Loi ny c u im:

    - Trng lng vcontainer nh, thtch cha hng nhiu hn v pa-nen nhm

    nhv mng hn.

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    - Hp kim nhm c dng vbn ngoi p v t bn mn nhlp o-xt nhmthnh thnh v che phtrn mt.- Hp kim nhm tng i do, tuy dbin dng bi p lc nhng li dphchi dng c.

    Nhc im:

    - Dxc, rch khi vp.

    - Gi thnh chto cao v gi vt liu nhm t.+ Cht do:Cu trc ca container cht do gm c khung thp v pa-nen

    bng gdn, hai vch dc phcht do gia cbng si thy tinh. Khung thpc hn v pa-nen c gn cht vo khung bng ri-v hoc bu-lng (bolts).Si thy tinh c thc tt thnh dy, ct xn di thch hp v xp thnhlp hoc c dt thnh tm trn ln vo nha hng n dnh bt canha do, lm gim khnng chng thm ca kt cu. V l, si thy tinhthng c trn vi tl20-30%, va m bo kthut va c gi thnh

    phi chng.

    u im ca loi container cht do l:

    - Dung tch cha hng bn trong ln do pa-nen mng hn so vi sdng vtliu khc.

    - Hi nc t ng bn trong container nhli Pa-nen bng nha do c tnhcch nhit kh tt do hn chhin tng h hng hng do mhi.

    - Chng n mn tt hn vt liu khc.

    Nhc im:

    - Vcontainer tng i nng, gn bng vthp.

    - Gi thnh chto kh cao v vt liu v gia cng cao.+ Ngoi ra cn c nhiu loi container lm tnhiu loi vt liu khc: gdn, nha tng hp

    3. Cn cvo cu trc ca container :- Container kn(closed container): thng c 1 ca hoc 2 ca 2 u- Container thnh cao(high cube container) : c chiu cao hn containerthng thng- Container mnc(open top container) Thit kthun li cho vic nghng v rt hng qua mi Container. Khi ng hng vo trong, cc loi my

    mc thit bnng cn trnh ma nng.Container hmi c thit kthuntin cho vic ng hng vo v rt hng ra qua mi container. Sau khi ng

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    hng, mi sc phkn bng vi du. Loi container ny dng chuynchhng my mc thit bhoc gc thn di.- Container mcnh(open side container)- Container mnc, mcnh(open top, open side container)

    - Container khung(flat rack container): cu trc gm mt bkhung lin ktvi mt sn, khng cn vch vi mi che bc, chuyn ch t, v c thxp bn trong 1 hoc 2 tng ty theo chiu cao xe- Container mt phng(platform/ flatbed container): c thit k khngvch khng mi m chc mt bng vng chc, dng chuyn chhng nng,thit b, hng qu kh( c kch thc ln kch thc ca Container mc no ).- Container thp(half height container): c chiu cao bng mt na cacontainer thng thng- Container c lthng hi, hthng thng gi(vented/ ventilated container):

    ): c thit kc nhng lthng gi thnh vch dc hoc thnh vch trcmt Container gip cho hng ha cha bn trong trao i khng kh (ththcvt) c ddng v khng bthi ra trong thi gian chuyn chnht nh- Container cch nhit/ c hthng lm lnh/ c hthng lm nng(thermalinsulated/ refrigerated/ heated container);

    - Container lnh: (refrigerated or reefer Container): c thit kdnhchuyn chcc loi hng cn gilnh cao nh tht, c, tmC loi mylnh c t bn trong Container nhng cng c loi dung hic cug cpqua ng dn tmy lnh bn ngoi.

    - Container cch nhit: (Insulated Container): c thit kdnh chuyn chrau qu, dc phm c kt cu cch nhit gn ginhit nga gia tngv thng thng ly lm ngun gy mt.

    - Container dng bn(tank container); Container bn (Tank Container): cthit kgm mt khung v mt bn cha chuyn chcc loi cht lngthng thng. Hng c rt vo trong qua ming bn (manhole) btr trnmi Container v c thot ra tra van x(Outlet Vale) nhtc dng catrng lc hoc c thot ra tming bn btr trn mi nhsc ht camy bm. N c thc lp thm thit bthay i nhit bn trong phhp vi tng loi yu cu ca hng ha.

    4. Cn cco cng dng

    c chia lm 5 nhm phbin

    - Container bch hathng c sdng chhng kh ( l loi hng khng phikhng chnhit bn trong container mc nht nh), nn cn c gi l container kh

    (dry container, vit tt l 20DC hay 40DC). Loi container ny c sdng phbin nht

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    trong vn ti bin. Container loi ny bao gm container kn, container thnh cao, mnc,mcnh, mnc- mcnh, container c lthng hi..

    - Container hng ril loi container dng ch hng ri ( thc ht, x phng ri, cc loiht nh)L loi container cho php xp hng ri kh (xi mng, ng cc, qung) bng

    cch rt t trn xung qua ming xp hng (loading hatch), v d hng di y hoc bncnh (discharge hatch).

    Loi container hng ri bnh thng c hnh dng bn ngoi gn ging vi container bchha, tr ming xp hng v ca d hng.

    Hnh bn th hin container hng ri vi ming xp hng (pha trn) v ca d hng (bncnh) ang m.

    - Container chhng lng: dng chuyn chcc mt hng lng , ru, hacht,nc.dng container dng bn

    - Container chhng hng dhng c thit kdnh chuyn chcc loi hng c biti hi khng chnhit bn trong Container mc nht nh.Do mi v vch loithng bc phxp nhm ngn cch nhit bn trong Container tip xc v chu nhhng nhit bn ngoi.C 3 loi Container+ Container lnh+Container cch nhit

    +Container thng gi

    - Container chhng c bit+Container chsc vt: c thit kc bit chgia sc. Vch dc hoc vch mt trcc gn ca li nhthng hi. Phn di ca vch dc btr lthot bn khi dn vsinh+Container ch t: container khung

    5. Cn cvo kch thc

    Theo ISO 668:1995(E), cc container ISO u c chiu rng l 2,438m (8ft).

    V chiu di, container 40 c ly lm chun. Cc container ngn hn c chiu di tnhton sao cho c th xp kt t di container 40 v vn m bo c khe h 3 inch gia. Chng hn 2 container 20 s t kht di 1 container 40 vi khe h gia 2 container20 ny l 3 inch. V l do ny, container 20 ch c chiu di xp x 20 feet (chnh xc l cnthiu 1,5 inch).

    V chiu cao, hin ch yu dng 2 loi: thng v cao. Loi container thng cao 8 feet 6inch (86), loi cao c chiu cao 9 feet 6 inch (96). Cch gi container thng, containercao ch mang tnh tp qun. Trc y, ngi ta gi loi cao 8 feet l container thng,nhng hin nay loi ny khng cn c s dng nhiu na, thay vo , container thngc chiu cao 86.

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    Theo tiu chun ISO 668:1995(E), kch thc v trng lng container tiu chun 20 v 40nh bng di y.

    K m hiu container

    Nu , bn s thy trn v container c rt nhiu loi k, m hiu th hin nhng nghakhc nhau.

    Chng c ghi pha trc, pha sau, bn trong, bn ngoi, v c trn nc; c l ch tr digm l khng c k hiu no.

    Hin tiu chun hin hnh quy nh i vi cc k m hiu container l ISO 6346:1995. Theo, cc nhn hiu ny chia thnh nhng loi chnh sau:

    H thng nhn bit (identification system) M kch thc v m loi (size and type codes) Cc k hiu khai thc (operational markings)

    1. H thng nhn bit (identification system)

    H thng nhn bit ca container bao gm 4 thnh phn M ch s hu (owner code) K hiu loi thit b (equipment category identifier / product group code)

    S s-ri (serial number / registration number)Ch s kim tra (check digit)

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    -M ch s hu (owner code):M ch s hu (cn gi l tip u ng container) bao gm 3ch ci vit hoa c thng nht v ng k vi c quan ng kim quc t thng qua cquan ng kim quc gia hoc ng k trc tip vi Cc container quc t - BIC (BureauInternational des Containers et du Transport Intermodal).

    Sau khi ng k, vic s hu m ny mi c chnh thc cng nhn trn ton th gii. Mthng c th s hu mt hoc nhiu m khc nhau, mc d BIC hn ch iu ny, v a ranhng iu kin nht nh cho vic ng k nhiu m.

    Vit Nam, n u nm 2010, c 6 cng ty ng k m tip u ng vi BIC, chi tit nhdi y.

    TT M BIC Tn cng ty

    1 GMDU Gemadept

    2 GMTU Gematrans

    3 NSHU Nam Trieu shipping

    4 VCLU Vinashin-TGC

    5 VNLU Vinalines container

    6 VNTU Vinashin-TGC

    (Ghi ch: container u ng GMTU hin do Gemadept qun l; Vinashin-TGC ng k 2tip u ng VCLU v VNTU)

    Mt s cng ty khc ang s hu, khai thc container vi nhng u ng nht nh, nhngcha ng k vi BIC, chng hn nh Bin ng dng u ng BISU, Vinafco dng u ngVFCU...

    Vic s dng cc u ng khng ng k nh vy c mt s bt li. Th nht, iu ny trivi ni dung quy nh trong Ph lc G ca tiu chun ISO 6343, c iu khon quy nh vng k m xc nh ch s hu vi BIC c bo v quyn s hu i vi m ny trn

    phm vi quc t.

    Th hai, BIC khuyn co, container khng c ng k tip u ng, trong qu trnh luthng, c th b hi quan gi, kim tra, v c th khng c lu thng t do nh trong Cngc hi quan v container (Customs Convention on Containers) quy nh. iu ny s gy

    bt li hoc thm ch cn tr ton b qu trnh vn ti.

    Th ba, vic khng ng k v khng c thanhn v quyn s hu i vi tip u ngv ko theo l quyn s hu container d dn n nhm ln, khiu ni, v c th dn n mtcontainer.

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    -K hiu loi thit b: l mt trong ba ch ci di y vit hoa, tng ng vi mt loi thitb:

    U: container ch hng (freight container)J: thit b c th tho ri ca container ch hng (detachable freight container-related

    equipment)Z: u ko (trailer) hoc mooc (chassis)

    Vic s dng bt k ch ci no khng thuc ba ch ci trn (U; J; Z) lm k hiu loi thitb c coi l khng tun theo tiu chun ISO 6346.

    - S s-ri (serial number): y chnh l s container, gm 6 ch s. Nu s s-ri khng 6ch s, th cc ch s 0 s c thm vo pha trc thnh 6 ch s. Chng hn, nu ss-ri l 1234, th s thm 2 ch s 0, v s s-ri y s l 001234. S s-ri ny do ch shu container t t ra, nhng m bo nguyn tc mi s ch s dng duy nht cho mtcontainer.

    - Ch s kim tra (check digit): l mt ch s (ng sau s s-ri), dng