CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING

download CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING

If you can't read please download the document

  • date post

    06-May-2015
  • Category

    Engineering

  • view

    3.025
  • download

    1

Embed Size (px)

description

basics of civil construction engineering

Transcript of CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING

  • 1.March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM COURSE OUTLINE 1. Construction of foundation 2. Brick & block masonry construction 3. Reinforced brick masonry 4. Bond & joints in masonry 5. RCC structure 6. Types of steel 7. RCC slab, beam, & column 8. Floor construction 9. Doors 7 windows 10.Stair & stair case 11.Aconites of building 12.Industrial buildings & factories TEXT & BOOKS REFERENCES Building construction material & types of construction BY Huntington (3rd Edition) & Construction Engineering & Management BY S.C.Sharma

2. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM FOUNDATION: The part of the structure which bears & transmit the structure load i.e. DEAD LOAD, IMPOSED LOAD or WIND LOAD to the supporting soil or rocks are called foundation Supporting soil is known as foundation material. DEAD LOAD: It includes self weight of the building which is sub-structure, super structure primary & secondary components & finishes. IMPOSES LOAD: It is the weight of occupants, furnitures & moveable goods together with the weight of snow which may rest on roof. LATERAL LOAD: It is the seismic forces & wind load exerted on the building from any direction at its max velocity. COMPONENTS OF FOUNDATION: Any foundation has two components the natural foundation and the artificial foundation. Natural foundation is that part of sub-soil on which the structure rests and the artificial foundation is that part of the structure which transmits the load to the natural foundation. BEARING CAPACITY & BEARING PRESSURE: Bearing capacity of soil is defined as the safe load which a unite area of ground can carry. The bearing pressure is the amount of force that a structure exerts on the ground per unite area bearing pressure must not exceed the bearing capacity of soil. S.NO. Sub soil type Bearing Capacity (KN/M2 ) 1 - Rocks 600 to 10,000 2 - Compact gravel & sand 300 to 600 3 - Stiff clay 200 to 400 4 - Soft clay 50 to 100 5 - Loose gravel & sand 75 to 200 6 - Very soft clay & silt 0 to 75 3. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM PURPOSE OF FOUNDATION: 1- To secure a level & firm bed area. 2- To distribute the structure load over the layer area. 3- To apply loads on the bearing surface at uniform rate. 4- To increase overall stability of the structure 5- To prevent the lateral moment of the natural foundation. DEPTH OF FOUNDATION: The minimum depth of which a foundation must be designed is depending on the following factors. 1- Applied load & their intensity . 2- Space requirement of the structure 3- Depth of adjacent foundation. 4- Characteristics of the foundation material 5- Climatically conditions TYPES OF FOUNDATION: 1-SHALLOW FOUNDATION: The foundation structured near the ground surface mostly on the first hard strata available below the ground level is called shallow foundation. Following are the four types of shallow foundation. 1- Spread foundation 2- Grillage foundation 3- Step foundation 4- Raft or Mat foundation (Sketches) SPREAD FOUNDATION: 4. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM COMBINED FOOTING: CONTINUOUS FOOTING: 2- GRILLAGE FOUNDATION: A- Steel or wooden sections embedded in concrete. B- Used when bearing capacity is very low. C- Not use in massive structure. D-is is very expensive. 3-STEP FOUNDATION: Foundation bed is made of concrete used when ground is not level used in hilly areas. 5. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM 5- RAFT OR MAT FOUNDATION: It consists of a thick RCC slab cover whole area in the form of a mat. It is used when ground conditions are very poor & the bearing capacity of soil is too low therefore individual footing can not be provided. Thickness of raft foundation is 2 to 3 feet is is used in massive structures e.g. Baharia Icon , Crescent bay etc. B- DEEP FOUNDATION: A deep foundation is suitable for massive structures like bridges, tall buildings where greater strength is required it is constructed with some artificial arrangements at the base e.g. PILE, CORRIONS etc. PILE FOUNDATION: A deep foundation which is supported on piles is called pile foundation these piles distributed structure load to the soil is convert either by friction bearing at the end. SUITABILITY OF PILE FOUNDATION: 1- When the soil is very soft & the suitable base is not available at the desired depth. 2- When building is constructed near the sea-shore or river bank. 3- In taller buildings subjected to heavy loads. TYPES OF PILE W.R. TO MATERIAL: 1- Concrete pile 2- RCC pile 3- Timber pile 4- Steel pile 5- Sand pile TYPES OF PILE W.R. TO USAGE: 1- Bearing pile 2- Fraction pile 3- Fraction 4- Guide pile 5- Butter pile 6. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM INVERTED ARCHES: An area consists of a brick or stone unit arranged in such a manner so as to from a curved surface heavy concave face upward & inverted arch is formed. It can be constructed b/w the two walls and load can be distributed over a wider area. Depth of inverted arch is very less. EXCAVATION FOR FOUNDATION: After a foundation designed of building foundation plan is prepared to any convenient scale by showing all masonry dimensions 7 setting out this foundation plan on the ground by clean & leveling the ground & position of building & trenches should be carefully marked. After setting out the trenches excavation work is carried out by pick axes or mechanical excavators & excavated earth is dumped away from the trenches. Where excavation is carried out in rock the some advanced excavation equipments pick driller. Wedges, jumpers, Chisel etc. May be used the excavated trenches must retain their shape till the space filled with foundation concrete in it. The trenches are deep & sides are soft their trenches are suitability supported be means of planks sheets or polliy board to avoid collapse of trenches. LAYING OF FOUNDATION CONCRETE: In Pakistan normally 1:4:8 concrete is used in lean concrete& week concrete Non-concrete & its thickness is 4 to 6 before laying foundation concrete the bed of excavated trenches should be well rolled leveled & sprinkle at bottom before laying of lean concrete after lean concrete is placed to the whole depth of foundation concrete is completed no. of layers 7 each layers should not be more than 6 in depth & compacted properly before laying of foundation concrete then curing is done. MASONRY CONSTRUCTION: 1- Brick masonry 2- Block masonry 3- Stone masonry A-BRICK MASONRY: Brick masonry are obtained from clay by molding it into rectangular uniform shapes & size. To provide strength & durability these bricks are dried as burnt before use in building construction. Strength of brick work depends on the type of mortar used in brick masonry. 7. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM TYPES OF BRICKS: 1- BURNED OR FIRED BRICKS: These types of bricks are burnt at high temperature & laid with cement and lime mortar lime is used to improve the workability these bricks are used in landscape or old buildings. All the old buildings In Pakistan made by these bricks these bricks can further be classify as 1st class and 2nd class and 3rd class bricks will respect to quality. 2- SUNDRIED BRICKS: In these types of bricks masonry sundried bricks are laid in mud mortar. Mud is combination of cement lime & mortar. It is used in rough construction or in ordinary works. SIZE OF BRICKS: STEP OF LAYING BRICKS MASONRY: 1- Brick are selected according to their size, shape, color. 2- Stack 1000 bricks together in such away that corners should not be damaged. 3- Bricks are soaked in water to prevent then to absorb moisture from the mortar. 4- That much quantity of mortar should be prepaid which can be consumed in 30 45 minutes. GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN BRICK WORK: 1- Bricks should be well burnet & of required size , shape, & color. 2- All bricks must be soaked in clean water. 3- Mortar should be of specific quantity 1:4 W/C ratio is used in brick masonry. 4- A systematic bond should be provide in general English bond is provided otherwise specified. 5- All joints should be filled with uniform thickness of mortar. 6- Ground below the wall must be firmed and leveled. 7- Brick work should be properly cured for at least 10 days. 8- Freshly laid brick should be protected from rain. BLOCK MASONRY: Block size L = B = H/D 12 = 8 = 3 12 = 8 = 4 12 = 8 = 5 12 = 8 = 6 12 = 8 = 8 1- compressive strength of brick is ( 500 800 PSI ) 2- compressive strength of block is ( 1000 1500 PSI ) 8. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM ADVANTAGE OF BLOCK MASONRY: 1- it is lay in size 2- uniform in design 3- stronger then brick 4- attractive appearances 5- easy handle & placing 6- Easily manufacture. BLOCK MANUFACTURE: 1- 60% fine aggregate 7 40% coarse aggregate in block. 2- Use 1:6 proportions for cement 7 aggregate in block. 3- Block should be sufficient set before remove from the molding plate. 4- Block should not be disturbed on the molding plate for at least 24 hours. 5- It is preferable to use mechanical molds for better finish & strength. 6- Block should be curried after keeping the under shade for at least 24 hours & immured for a week in tank. LYI